Most Common Form Of Arthritis Essay

Most Common Form Of Arthritis Essay

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Medical diagnosis: Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and can be classified as a primary or secondary pathology usually due to alterations in the composition and characteristics of the cartilage located in the joints. OA bilaterally affects the articular surfaces of weight bearing joints like the knees and hips. Depending on use osteoarthritis will affect the spine, pelvis, elbows, wrists, and ankles as well. With age there is a decrease in collagen synthesis, and an increase in collagen breakdown within joints. This depletion in the cartilage padding in joints leads to the grinding of bones and increased mechanical damage. Synovial fluid becomes more viscous in aging patients as well. With the normal wear and tear of joints, the fluid collects bits of floating cartilage further damaging the cavity. Though it is not an inflammatory arthritis, inflammation can occur in the joint as cytokines are released due to tissue damage triggering an inflammatory reaction leading to joint swelling and pain. This damage and inflammation predisposes the pt to even more cartilage damage and continues to impair collagen replacement in the joints.
Risk factors

o Age
o Obesity
o Trauma
o Reduced sex hormones
o Muscle weakness
o Bone disorder

Clinical Manifestations

o Reduced ROM
o Crepitus
o Bone malalignment
o Warmth of joints affected
o Atrophy
o Stiffness in morning
o Joint deformity
o Fatigue
o Generalized weakness
o Anorexia
o Cold intolerance
o Paresthesia
o Joint enlargement
o Redness
o Subcutaneous nodules
o Weight loss
o Febrile

Common lab & diagnostic tests
o Imaging
o Overall Clinical impression

Treatment:
Rest, medication to alleviate joint pain and symptoms (NSAIDS, COX-2 Inhibitors, An...


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o Inadequate iodine intake
o Previous hyperthyroidism Treatment
o Medication (Lithium and amiodarone)
o Hypopituitarism
Clinical Manifestations

o Dry skin
o Bruising
o Delayed wound healing
o Cold extremities
o Alopecia
o Bradycardia
o Edema
o Carpal tunnel
o Tiredness
o Menstural abnormality
o Weakness
o Cold intolerance
o Difficulty concentrating
o Weight gain
o Constipation

Common lab & diagnostic tests

o
o Thyroid antibodies
o T4
o T3
o TSH
o Scanningi devices (nuclear can or a radioactive iodine update)
o CT
o MRI
o US
o Aspiration

Treatment:
Hormone replacement therapy usually indicated, levothyroxine. Primary goal of treatment is to maintain normal levels of TSH in the serum. Pt should take OTC vitamins and minerals to compensate with thyroid hormone replacement interference with calcium absorption.

(Osborn, Wraa, Watson, Holleran, 2014)

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