The Molecular Structure Of A Protein And Ribonucleic Acid ( Rna ) Essay

The Molecular Structure Of A Protein And Ribonucleic Acid ( Rna ) Essay

Length: 1393 words (4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview


Genetic information is encoded in the molecular structure of nucleic acids in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Most organisms carry their genetic information in DNA, with the exception of some viruses, which use RNA. Within the cell, genetic information is transported within the chromosomes, which are comprised of DNA and associated proteins. Human cells possess 46 chromosomes, each of which carries a large number of genes. Through meiosis, pairing and separation of replicated chromosomes occurs during the division of sex cells to form gametes. Many genes can encode traits by specifying the structure of a protein. Genetic information is transcribed from DNA into RNA and then translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein. Specific traits are acquired through several patterns of inheritance that affect the developing embryo.

The process by which DNA codes for RNA, which in turn codes for proteins, is know as the central dogma of molecular biology. RNA synthesis from DNA occurs through a process known as transcription. Following transcription, protein synthesis from RNA is completed through translation. During transcription, a nucleotide strand from a single strand of the DNA double helix, known as the template strand, is used as the template for RNA synthesis. This means that in any section of DNA, only one nucleotide strand carriers the genetic information transcribed into RNA in most cases. A transcription unit, which is a portion of DNA that codes for a specific RNA molecule as well as the sequences necessary for its transcription, contains a promoter, an RNA coding sequence, and a terminator. The promoter, a DNA sequence which the transcription apparatus recognizes and binds, indicat...


... middle of paper ...


...rms of RNA. As the cell divides, the descendants inherit this turned-on gene as well as the different forms of RNA. Large quantities of RNA are inherited during egg formation in the mother, which affects how genes are switched on when the egg develops into an embryo. Although sperm carry less RNA, and epigenetic effect on offspring is still possible. DNA is used to store genetic information, which is then passes from parents to offspring. Changes in a gene’s DNA sequence can change proteins by altering the amino acid sequence, which can directly affect one’s phenotype. Once transcribed into RNA, some molecules can silence specific genes, which can affect cell differentiation during embryo development. These changes are due to the way the genes are expressed or silenced. These changes will remain stable during cell differentiation when each type of cell multiplies.


Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Discovery Of The Rna World Essay

- Very little is known about the early life on earth but it has been broadly investigated in regards to what is known as the RNA world. The RNA world suggests that early life utilized ribonucleic acid (RNA) for both catalytic ability and also for genetic data (Higgs, Lehman, 2015). There has been little examination of whether protein synthesis emerged before DNA or what went before the RNA world (Dworkin, Lazcano, Miller, 2002). One of the most important questions humanity has ever asked is; where does life come from....   [tags: DNA, RNA, Gene, Life]

Better Essays
1071 words (3.1 pages)

Essay about Protein Synthesis : Enzyme Synthesis

- ... The leap in determining the relationship between genes and enzymes came a few years later at Stanford University when George Beadle and Edward Tantum were working with bread mold and exposing it to x-rays. The mold used metabolic pathways to produce molecules that they needed. The partners had identified mutants that could not survive on a minimal medium because it was unable to synthesize essential molecules from minimal ingredients. Later they came to suggest that each class was blocked at a different step in this pathway because mutants in the class lacked the enzyme that catalyzes the blocked step....   [tags: DNA, Protein, RNA, Gene]

Better Essays
707 words (2 pages)

A Study On Molecular Diagnostics Essay

- Chandni Shiwbodh Molecular Diagnostics Molecular Diagnostics is defined as tests which identify certain patterns in both RNA and DNA. These tests are able to identify RNA, genes, and protein sequences which play a role in diseases. These sequences may be linked to diseases which include nucleotide polymorphism, deletions, rearrangements, and many more. Molecular Diagnostics is also able to identify and multiply the presence of certain microorganisms and cells. Molecular Diagnostics provides a great amount of clinical information....   [tags: DNA, Mutation, Molecular biology]

Better Essays
1724 words (4.9 pages)

Human Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 1 Essay

- Human Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding protein 1 (hHint1) has emerged a protein of interest due to its widespread expression, and mouse knockouts exhibiting multiple central nervous system (CNS) phenotypes. hHint1 is a member of a superfamily Histidine Triad (HIT) proteins characterize by their conserved nucleotide binding motif, His-X-His-X-His-XX, where X is a hydrophobic residue. hHint1 is a homodimer and possesses nucleoside phosphoramidase and acyl-AMP hydrolase activity, with preference for purine over pyrimidine nucleosides....   [tags: Protein, DNA, RNA, Enzyme inhibitor]

Better Essays
1070 words (3.1 pages)

Essay on The Structure Of The Protein Building Process

- A karyotype is a procedure that analyes size, shape and number of chromosomes (MathandScience, 2011). Chromosomes are thread-like molecules that carry hereditary information for everything from height to eye color. They are made of protein and one molecule of DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic instructions, passed down from parents. In humans, animals, and plants, most chromosomes are arranged in pairs within the nucleus of a cell. (Szalay, 2013). Genes are segments of DNA located on chromosomes, Genes exist in alternative forms called alleles....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Protein, Genetics]

Better Essays
1085 words (3.1 pages)

A Molecular Epidemiology Study Of New Hepatitis B Virus Sub Genotype F5pan

- A Molecular Epidemiology Study of New Hepatitis B Virus Sub-Genotype F5pan Kristen Pimienta October 28, 2014 Montclair State University Dr. Campanella Based on the work and study that Martínez, Zaldivar, the CSS-NAT group, Castillo, Ortiz, Mendoza, Cristina, and Pascale did in the country of Panama about the diversity of Hepatitis B genotypes in blood donors from Panama, they found new variants of HBV, and they did a molecular analysis of the genetic variability of the Hepatitis B genotypes from a sample of donors that were tested positive for the virus....   [tags: Molecular biology, DNA, Polymerase chain reaction]

Better Essays
1395 words (4 pages)

A Brief Note On Sickle Cell Anaemia ( Sca ) Essay

- Every year 1,0000 babies are born with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), a disease which is thought to be affecting the lives of 100,000 Americans, SCA is a debilitating genetic disorder with unpredictable complications that significantly impact the livelihood and the wellbeing of its carriers. Initially diagnosed in the patient’s early childhood, SCA appears in varying severity from person to person, effectively reducing the number and altering the shape of red blood cells (RBC) in the patient. Whereby, unlike the RBC in a healthy subject, which aid in facilitating the gas transport from and to the cells, SCA makes it difficult for the RBC to flow without congesting the blood vessels; as such, del...   [tags: DNA, Protein, Amino acid, RNA]

Better Essays
1167 words (3.3 pages)

Essay about Living Cells, A Central Dogma

- In living cells, a “central dogma” exists in which genetic information provided by the deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, in an organism follows a certain path, undergoing transcription to create mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) strands with a few modifications, which can then be translated into amino acids that form the building blocks of a protein after the process of translation. Although DNA makes RNA, which then makes protein, the three macromolecules have different chemical structures, resulting in an increasing variety of RNA forms and functions from DNA, and even more variety of protein forms and functions from RNA....   [tags: DNA, Protein, RNA, Amino acid]

Better Essays
1800 words (5.1 pages)

Overview of Molecular Biology Essay

- In 1970 Francis Crick published a paper in the science journal Nature on the central dogma of molecular biology, presenting the normal flow of genetic information, as shown in Figure 1 (Crick, 1970). Although many discoveries have been made since then, the main idea still stands: every organism uses its own DNA sequence to synthesize its proteins (Crick, 1970). In order to function properly, the genome has to be kept unblemished, any damage can potentially affect a protein’s structure, interfering with its function (Brown, 2010)....   [tags: dna mutation, gene abnormalities]

Better Essays
1224 words (3.5 pages)

Essay on Molecular Insights into the Hormone Insulin

- Molecular Insights into the Hormone Insulin Insulin plays a major role in providing energy for cells to function, as it begins reactions that convert glucose into energy. It is a hormone that acts as a messenger to other cells to uptake glucose, allowing them to produce energy to continue functioning. Using Rasmol and Chem3D software, the molecular structure of insulin was examined to understand its binding with its receptor and to gain chemical insight into its activities related to the production of energy....   [tags: Biology Medical Hormones Diabetic Diabetes]

Better Essays
1684 words (4.8 pages)