It would be unjust to write an essay about innovations in food packaging and not mention modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This is because modified atmosphere packaging has slotted itself into playing an integral part of the food industry (Han, 2005). The main objectives of MAP are to extend the shelf life of the food and in turn prevent any adverse changes in the safety, sensory, and nutritive characteristics of foods. MAP completes these purposes by following three simple principles:
1. It reduces undesirable physiological, chemical/biochemical, and physical changes in foods,
2. It controls microbial growth and,
3. It prevents product contamination.
MAP uses three main gases; nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. It is crucial that all three gases are used together, as each gas has its own individual role to play and in combination the correct MAP conditions are acquired. Nitrogen is used doe to its properties of being an inert and tasteless gas, but lacks antimicrobial activity. Its primary function is to displace oxygen, which consequently prevents package collapse. Oxygen is exploited as it plays a vital role in inhibiting the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, but unfortunately O2 promotes the growth of aerobic microbes. Whereas, carbon dioxide (CO2) is soluble in both water and lipids, but due to its property of becoming more soluble as temperatures decrease, the dissolution of CO2 in the product could potentially result in package collapse. The primary function of CO2 is that it is renowned for its bacteriostatic effect, and slowing down the respiration of many products (Cooksey, 2014). Therefore, it is evident that MAP would not work if one or more of the gases were not ...
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...ition 1. Practical Action.
Han, J.H., (2005). Innovations in Food Packaging (Food Science and Technology International). 1 Edition. Academic Press.
Han, J.H., Rodrigues, T. (2003) Intelligent packaging - Innovations in Food Packaging, Chapter 9, Pages 138-155
Sung S.Y., Sin, L.T., Tee, T.T., Bee S.O., Rahmat, A.R., Rahman, W.A., Tan A.C., Vikhraman, M. (2013) - Antimicrobial agents for food packaging applications- Trends in Food Science & Technology: Elsevier. October 2013
WHO – World Health Organisation (2002) - WHO global strategy for food safety: Safer food for better health - Retrieved from http://www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications/general/en/strategy_en.pdf (Accessed 1st April 2014)
WHO World Health Organisation (2007a) - WHO | Food safety and foodborne illness. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs237/en/ (Accessed 1st April 2014)
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