The Modernization Of The Russian Empire Economically, Politically, And Socially

The Modernization Of The Russian Empire Economically, Politically, And Socially

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Count Sergei Witte (1849-1915) and Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) had sketched out plans for the modernization of the Russian Empire economically, politically, and socially. Lenin was a Russian Communist Revolutionary, the architect of the soviet state. He used Karl Marx as a foundation for his modernization plans. Witte was not a liberal nor a conservative, and held several positions of power. His goals were to be achieved under the existing Russian Empire. The context to the two differing perspectives originates in the historical background of Russia in the early twentieth century. A chronological series of events up until the end of Tsar Nicholas II who ruled from 1894-1917, during the modernization of Russia is provided.
In 1901 the Socialist Revolutionary Party was founded, and two years later the Tran-Siberian Railway was completed. From 1904 to 1905 Russia was at war with Japan, the conflicts soon turned internal. January 1905 the Bloody Sunday Massacre occurred in St. Petersburg, in October there was a general strike, and in December the members of St. Petersburg Soviet were arrested. In April of 1906 the First Duma convened only to be dissolved in July. The Second Duma convened in February and was dissolved in June, which sets into motion a new electoral law. The Third Duma convened in November of 1907, by 1911 students in universities wreaked havoc. In 1912 there was a Fourth Duma, and the First Balkan War. In the following year the Second Balkan War occurred. World War I breaks out in 1914, for the next year Russia suffered several defeats. Nicholas the II was abdicated in 1917. Russia was industrializing at this point, but it differed from others world powers because “cottage industry and heavy industry existed side ...

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...reate repression. It is the Commune of Russia who will make decisions for all of Russia as “a working institution passing and executing laws at the same time,” not to be mistaken for the bourgeois parliament system. In no way is this anarchy, this was not about “dispensing at once with all administration, with all subordination,” rather it is a more refined system of equality. Nor is it a capitalist democracy which excludes those considered part of the insignificant minority such as women. The goal is a creation of servants of society for Russia not masters of society. As part of a communist society, there would be common property which is part of the economic development as well as the social aspect of a united modernized Russia. Russians, Soviets would be “a single all-people sate syndicate,” in which there would be an “equality of labor and equality of pay.”

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