Chinese economic reforms utilized capitalist techniques, or socialism with Chinese characteristics. The new regime rejected class conflict and emphasized the building of the forces of production through the Four Modernizations of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology. Bases on policy changes, this program promoted a decade of "opening" in politics, economics, and culture internationally and domestically. At the Third Plenum of the Eleventh Central Committee in late December, policies involved with the Four Modernizations were clarified: "Carrying out the Four Modernizations requires great growth in the productive forces...diverse changes in those aspects of the relations of production...not in harmony with the growth of productive forces, and...changes in all methods of management, actions, and thinking that stand in the way of such growth."
At first, the reform focused on the farms. Farmers did not gain the right to own their land; however, they got a fifty-year lease that they could ...
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Schoppa, Keith R. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. New York, The
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Tyler, Patrick E. "Deng Xiaoping: A Political Wizard Who Put China on the
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