Modern slavery is seen as human trafficking by several scholars such as Smith, (2007) Miers, (2003) Ould (2004) etc. who contended that slavery encompasses traffic in person. To Lee (2011: 21) ‘Human trafficking contains element of extreme and direct physical or psychological coercion that gives a person control over another’s life similar to slavery.’ The interpretation of modern day slavery is complicated due to the ambiguity in the definition of human trafficking.
Art. 3 of the Palermo Protocol defines trafficking as:
(a) "Trafficking in persons" shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs;
(b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used;
(c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered "trafficking in persons" even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article;
(d) "Child" shall mean any person under eighteen years of age.
From the above, we...
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The number of people trafficked remains disputed amongst intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations worldwide. This could be attributed to the lack of a generally acceptable definition by the international organisations. However, it may also be connected to lack of sound methodology, as Sanghera (2005: 12) had pointed that ‘most data on trafficking are neither statistically representative nor empirically sound but based on speculation and projection.’
According to International Labour Organization (ILO, 2012), an estimated 21 million people are victims of forced labour globally, further stating that forced sexual exploitation victims are 4.5 million which is 22 percent; forced labour exploitation in economic activities victims are 14.5 million which is 68 percent and state-imposed forms of forced labour victims are 2.2 million which is 10 percent.
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