Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau’s political philosophies and theories each differ from one another’s, but these three philosophers have all staked their claims as to what man would be like, prior to the formation of the state. This is the State of Nature. Their notions on the social contract reflect their position on the political spectrum. These three philosophers also examine the purpose and function of the government to individuals of the state.
Modern liberalism is the philosophical standpoint for an increase in social progress. Jean Jacques Rousseau provides a compelling account of modern era liberalism through his advocation because of his notions on good government, his social contract, and his beliefs in complete freedom. Due to this, he has allowed for mankind to achieve equality for all. He does not put restraints on what man can and cannot do. This is modern liberalism. In contrast, Thomas Hobbes in on the other end of the political spectrum and is classified as a conservative. John Locke falls between these for his notions are relatable to liberalism ad conservatism.
State of Nature
For Thomas Hobbes, the state of nature is a theoretical model of life prior to the formation of the state, it’s institutions and the government. Individuals make their own decisions, and there are no recognized authoritative figures. There is also no morality. Hobbes believes that by nature, all humans are equal in faculties of body and mind, with no claims to exclusive benefits. Conflicts will arise due to this equality. When a particular object is desired by both parties, their competitive nature will suppress their natural desire for peace. Due to this, a state of war arises in which individuals ...
... middle of paper ...
...rough a social contract, individuals abandon their natural rights in favor of liberty and freedom. The purpose and function of the government is to provide security of freedom, equality and justice for all members of the state. A failed government is one that does not function in a moral manner to its subjects. State interference is allowed, but only if it is in the interests of the general will. In Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s state, the main purpose of anything is individual freedom, for without this, there is no point to the creation of a state.
Hobbes, Thomas, and Aloysius Martinich. Leviathan. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2002. Print.
Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Government. New York: Macmillan, 1986. Print.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, and C. J. Betts. Discourse on Political Economy ; And, The Social Contract. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- We use ideas that are hundreds of years old to run our cities, states and country governments. Modern conservatism and modern liberalism both play a major role in our current government by supporting ideologies created by philosophers of the early 17th century. I will be talking about the early ideas of both these systems and how they developed into becoming modern systems that have been integrated into Political party and political systems. In order to understand our modern liberalism we must first understand classical liberalism and where it all started.... [tags: Liberalism, Classical liberalism, Conservatism]
848 words (2.4 pages)
- Typically Liberalism can be categorized into two different strands, Classical and Modern (yet some thinkers advocate a third strand that is referred to as Neo-Liberalism), each characterized by their differing and to some extent unavoidably overlapping attitudes regarding the theory behind the ideology and how it should be put into practice. Prior to examining how these relate to one another and before making any comparisons, it is important to give a definition, as best as possible, of Liberalism as a concept.... [tags: classical liberalism, liberalism, modern liberalis]
1802 words (5.1 pages)
- Political science entails many ideologies. This means that there are several perceptions that various individuals create to a given theory. As a result, there emerged two categories of people. First, there are those that subscribe to the tenets of a given theory. These are the people who belief in almost all the prescriptions of the theory. Such people find huge applicability of the theories in daily life. Then, there is another group of people that consist of the critics to the theory. In most cases, the people falling under this category tend to be against the propositions of the theory and they often provide an alternative to the theory .Overall, all theories come with both weaknesses and... [tags: political science, liberalism, adam smith]
1323 words (3.8 pages)
- There are two major ideologies in the American government: Conservatism and Liberalism. As every ideology, both of them have their strengths and weaknesses. These two ideologies have been leading the American Government to a more democratic and moral society, and both of them have contributed in certain ways to achieve new things or to keep things under control, both ideologies offer different ways to solve problems. Conservatism promotes retaining of traditions and minimal change in society and the consequences it may bring, Liberalism is the ideology founded in the ideas of equality and liberty.... [tags: Liberalism, Conservatism, Free market]
1330 words (3.8 pages)
- Modern day society is engrossed in a battle for protection of individual rights and freedoms from infringement by any person, be it the government or fellow citizens. Liberalism offers a solution to this by advocating for the protection of personal freedom. As a concept and ideology in political science, liberalism is a doctrine that defines the motivation and efforts made towards the protection of the aforementioned individual freedom. In the current society, the greatest feature of liberalism is the protection of individual liberty from intrusion or violation by a government.... [tags: Liberalism, Political philosophy, Human rights]
1391 words (4 pages)
- People can often be heard spewing nonsensical political jargon such as belonging to either the “Right” or “Left”, but what exactly does belonging to and holding such positions mean. There are a countless many political parties to which one can belong and although there are those who believe that they can be broken into the two categories and schools of thought; namely that of Liberalism and Conservatism, they are, without a doubt, completely wrong; However, before we address that, let us proceed to define these two ambiguous terms.... [tags: Political Science]
1480 words (4.2 pages)
- In President Obama’s speech at the U.S. and China Strategic and Economic Dialogue, he outlines the “essential steps in advancing a positive, constructive, and comprehensive relationship between the two countries.” In the President’s 2011 State of the Union Address, he provides four critical steps to achieve economic recovery in addition to several pressing domestic and international policies. What both these speeches hold in common, is the logic behind the liberalism tradition of international relations.... [tags: U.S. Politics ]
1472 words (4.2 pages)
- “We define politics as activity related to influencing, making, or implementing collective decisions for a political community”, where as ideologies “ is a package of interrelated ideas and beliefs about government, society, the economy, and human nature that inspire and affect political action (David Close, & Osvaldo Croci, Eric Mintz, 2015, pg 4, pg 55). The different perspectives of each ideology are imperative to the inner workings of global governmental styles. They help in solidifying and justifying certain perspectives of power and influence, while also limiting beliefs and values that are contrary to the “norm”.... [tags: Liberalism, Classical liberalism, Conservatism]
2416 words (6.9 pages)
- The polarization of the British political system can be traced back to the movement of Thatcherism. Thatcherism can be seen as the conviction politics, economic, social policy, and is the political movement that can even resemble Reaganomics. Just like Reaganomics, Thatcherism is considered a conservative movement that emphasizes heavily on the free markets, restraining government spending, privatization, deregulation, and tax cuts. These are the policies that Margaret Thatcher focused on; this political movement took place between 1979 and 1990 while she was the Prime Minister of the British Government.... [tags: politics, economic, social policy]
1036 words (3 pages)
Assessment of the View that Liberalism has Triumphed as the Dominant Ideology in Contemporary British Politics
- Assessment of the View that Liberalism has Triumphed as the Dominant Ideology in Contemporary British Politics When establishing whether liberalism is the dominant ideology in contemporary British politics, we must first establish the meaning of the key terms; liberalism, ideology and contemporary. The Oxford English Dictionary defines contemporary as, "living or occurring in the same or present modern period". This basically means present day. When defining ideology we must understand that there are a variety of ways in which it could be interpreted.... [tags: Papers]
1167 words (3.3 pages)