The modern history of Iraq begins with its cession from the Ottoman Empire at the end of the first World War. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, the territory that would later become Iraq fell under British hands as a League of Nations Mandate. The Mandatory Iraq was built upon a weak foundation. Conflicting promises between the British and the French and the Arab resistance to the Ottomans led to early domestic strife. The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence between the British and Arab resistance, which garnered Arab support in the region against the Ottomans, was largely ignored in favor of the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Failure to deliver on the promises of McMahon resulted in rebellions and protests that the British didn’t intend to devote the time or resources to properly address. Tensions came to a boiling point in 1920 during the Iraqi revolt against the British. While the revolt was quickly suppressed and accomplished little, it began the movement of Iraqi nationalism which would reemerge in later revolutions.
To better maintain control over the mandate, the British coronated Faisal ibn Hussein. He was having nationalist and Islamist appeal while still weak enough to be dependent on the British for support. Furthermore, the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty was signed allowing for local self-government, another attempt to quell dissent. In the later years of the mandate, the British put forth an attempt to develop political institutions and a democratic government. The lack of history of democracy in the region coupled with extensive foreign intervention caused the system to fail in both of its goals. When the mandate ended and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence in 1932, it did so on a weak foundation. Follo...
... middle of paper ...
...l War are the Iraqi government, ISIS, Ba’ath Party loyalists, and Kurdish factions. Currently, ISIS controls large swaths of land in north-western Iraq and eastern Syria, Kurdish nationals are trying to avoid conflict, and the Iraqi military is having difficulties reclaiming land from ISIS. At the request of the Iraqi government, the US has sent forces to the region in addition to armaments to the Kurds and Iraqi military. The US had led several coalitions in supporting the Iraqi government including: military surveillance, military advising, funding, and armaments. Following several massacres of ethnic minorities by ISIS, the US began conducting airstrikes in regions controlled by the terrorist group. The most recent developments include an increased ground presence of US troops and advancements by the Iraqi army into northern Iraq withering the land holds of ISIS.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The history of modern Iraq is one that is made up of many components, from the British occupation, to its monarch the non Iraqi Faisal, and his desire for a pan-Arab state. This document will present different events and subjects which will allow the reader to comprehend the history of Iraq from 1920- 1958, and what events occurred in the time period. Before we can begin to learn the modern history of Iraq we must briefly learn of the events that led to the creation of the state, formerly known as Mesopotamia.... [tags: Middle Eastern countries]
1838 words (5.3 pages)
- A Step into Iraq The country of Iraq is located between six countries in the Middle East. It is north of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and south of Turkey. Because of its geographical location, it has been through many conflicts throughout its history that date back to biblical times, formerly known as Mesopotamia. Other countries along its borders to the east and west are Syria, Jordan and Iran. One of the main terrain features of Iraq consists of extensive plains that cover the Central and southeastern parts of the country as well as an enormous dessert that covers the west and southeast region spreading across to the west of Kuwait.... [tags: Iraq, Gulf War, Iran–Iraq War, Iran]
1354 words (3.9 pages)
- Lasting for eight years, the Iran-Iraq War is widely considered to be the longest lasting war of the 20th Century. Also the bloodiest, it was initiated by Iraq, with little consideration for the intended outcome. The First Persian Gulf War had been smoldering for centuries over a bed of coals fueled by differing religious beliefs, and economical and political views, with encouragement from Third Party countries. Finally sparked by an intended land grab, neither side appeared to have considered the financial nor human cost racked up during hostilities.... [tags: modern Middle Eastern history]
1206 words (3.4 pages)
- Countries engage in war for reasons that may often seem to have simple solutions. At first glance, reasons for war can seem petty or pompous. In fact however, the steps to war often are complex and deep, shrouded in history, cultural clashes and religious disputes. The Iran-Iraq war of the 1980’s for instance locked the two nations in conflict for nearly eight years, costing nearly half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers, and an equivalent number of civilians their lives, with no real resolution to the dispute.... [tags: Iran, Iraq, Iran–Iraq War, Saddam Hussein]
2353 words (6.7 pages)
- The History of Two Nations at War Iran and Iraq’s relations have been hostile since the Iran-Iraq war, also known as the first Persian Gulf War. The war lasted from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century 's longest conventional war. Saddam, who was the 5th president of Iraq, was so amused with the continuous battles that he made it a point to have the Iraqi 25-dinar note display the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah on its currency. For nearly nine years, both countries suffered millions of casualties and lost countless amounts of dollars in destruction (Karsh, 2002).... [tags: Iran, Iraq, Iran–Iraq War, Saddam Hussein]
1017 words (2.9 pages)
- This conflict was something that had been brewing for centuries. Modern day Iraq and Iran have conflicting interests and disputes over borders and control dating back to the Ottoman Turkish Empire as well as the Persian empire under the Safavids (Hiro, 1991). The majority of this war was fought by Saddam Hussein's Iraq and Ayatollah Khomeini's Iran. Both political leaders fighting to protect what they thought was theirs and what they wanted to take from the other side. Iran's main arguments for conflict were to either capture Iraqi oilfields thereby giving them bartering chips to secure the heavy firepower that Iraq had and Iran desperately needed, or to attack the Iraqi artillery that had... [tags: Middle East, Current Events]
1122 words (3.2 pages)
- The Road to Democracy in Iraq The road to democracy in Iraq is a long, hard-fought journey. To understand why and how this journey is so difficult, we must look at Iraq from the beginning. We must look at the beliefs and background of Iraq to understand the country’s mindset as well as what they are doing to change how they are seen throughout the world. Iraq has been a country fraught with turmoil from within. From quarrels between feuding religious groups to dictators with an agenda of power, Iraq’s journey toward democracy has not been easy.... [tags: International Government ]
2438 words (7 pages)
- The war in Iraq is one of the most controversial wars in American history. It has impacted our everyday lives and society. It seems we are fighting for no purpose. I think we’re going in circles, and not going anywhere. Yes, we’re helping Iraqi civilians, but the militias are still there, and killing our troops. We should bring back our troops and overcome any obstacles. Our resources like education, agriculture, oil prices, health care and economy are among the factors that are being affected by the war.... [tags: Arguemnt Position Paper Iraq War]
1102 words (3.1 pages)
- We Must Support Our Troops in Iraq Most Americans haven't really changed all that much over the past three years. Going to class, work or keeping up with our own personal lives is what mostly preoccupies our daily existence. The majority of us simply don't have time to contemplate the actions currently being taken on the other side of the world. That's not to say that we haven't been inundated with news, pictures and videos of the bloodshed in Iraq. We know what goes on, but as most of us aren't directly involved in the war, our reactions to the news of the violence have, over time, become indifferent.... [tags: Argumentative Persuasive War Iraq]
701 words (2 pages)
- Mesopotamia, whose territory was roughly equivalent to that of modern Iraq, fell to the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century and remained part of the Ottoman Empire until a British invasion during World War One. As a method for ensuring the success of the uprising against the Ottoman Turks, the British supported the national independence movement within Iraq. However, in 1920 the Treaty of Sèvres established Iraq as a mandate of the League of Nations under British administration. The delay in attaining independence provoked a revolt in 1920, which was subsequently suppressed by the British.... [tags: essays research papers]
2697 words (7.7 pages)