The Modern History Of Iraq Essay

The Modern History Of Iraq Essay

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Historical Background
The modern history of Iraq begins with its cession from the Ottoman Empire at the end of the first World War. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, the territory that would later become Iraq fell under British hands as a League of Nations Mandate. The Mandatory Iraq was built upon a weak foundation. Conflicting promises between the British and the French and the Arab resistance to the Ottomans led to early domestic strife. The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence between the British and Arab resistance, which garnered Arab support in the region against the Ottomans, was largely ignored in favor of the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Failure to deliver on the promises of McMahon resulted in rebellions and protests that the British didn’t intend to devote the time or resources to properly address. Tensions came to a boiling point in 1920 during the Iraqi revolt against the British. While the revolt was quickly suppressed and accomplished little, it began the movement of Iraqi nationalism which would reemerge in later revolutions.
To better maintain control over the mandate, the British coronated Faisal ibn Hussein. He was having nationalist and Islamist appeal while still weak enough to be dependent on the British for support. Furthermore, the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty was signed allowing for local self-government, another attempt to quell dissent. In the later years of the mandate, the British put forth an attempt to develop political institutions and a democratic government. The lack of history of democracy in the region coupled with extensive foreign intervention caused the system to fail in both of its goals. When the mandate ended and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence in 1932, it did so on a weak foundation. Follo...


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...l War are the Iraqi government, ISIS, Ba’ath Party loyalists, and Kurdish factions. Currently, ISIS controls large swaths of land in north-western Iraq and eastern Syria, Kurdish nationals are trying to avoid conflict, and the Iraqi military is having difficulties reclaiming land from ISIS. At the request of the Iraqi government, the US has sent forces to the region in addition to armaments to the Kurds and Iraqi military. The US had led several coalitions in supporting the Iraqi government including: military surveillance, military advising, funding, and armaments. Following several massacres of ethnic minorities by ISIS, the US began conducting airstrikes in regions controlled by the terrorist group. The most recent developments include an increased ground presence of US troops and advancements by the Iraqi army into northern Iraq withering the land holds of ISIS.

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