Very close to the time that the Amherst Indians established their mission, the Ramapo Indians of New York also established a church and school of their own with the help of the Presbyterian Church. Rev. Francis Wheaton start...
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... system – even if lacking formal categories by which to recognize multiracial individuals – was capable of incorporating multiracial Indians into the existing racial hierarchy. Despite living in a social system that formally recognized only two races, multiracial Indians created a racial identity that was neither white nor black. In so doing, they continually challenged – and often disproved – the legitimacy of an imagined racial binary. And yet, some Indian communities’ efforts to establish a racial identity between whiteness and blackness often relied on, and indeed reinforced, deeply racist conceptions of an inferior black other. Ultimately, American Indians’ ability to gain recognition from whites relied on the degree to which they could be incorporated into the existing system of racial hierarchy without challenging its underlying logic or structures of power.
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