The Mircobiology Department: What is Studied, Tested, and Used Essay

The Mircobiology Department: What is Studied, Tested, and Used Essay

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Microbiology Department
Introduction
A Microbiology department deals with micro-organisms. These microorganisms are too small and they can only be seen by microscopes. A micro-organism is smaller than a red blood cell and they are the oldest form of life on earth.
Pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease to its host and pathogen. Pathogen can pass disease to unicellular organisms that belong to biological kingdoms.
There are some organisms that can cause infectious diseases. Infectious disease is a disease that caused by a micro-organism (viruses, bacteria and fungus) that enters the body of an organism. This disease can spread from one person to another person. Infectious bacteria can spread via air, bodily fluids, food, drinks and touch. There are different types of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Chickenpox, E.coli, Influenza and measles.

Types of microorganism
Bacteria
Bacterium is single-cell microorganisms. There are 5 billion bacteria on the earth. Bacteria can take the form of three shapes such as Spherical (Coccus), Rod shaped (Bacillus) and Spiral.


There is no internal membrane structure in bacteria, for an example nuclei, mitochondria and lysosomes. In bacterium, there are genomes which are circular shaped, double stranded DNA that is quite related to eukaryotic genomes. Bacteria can reproduce by dividing and growing and this process is known as Binary fission. Some bacteria get their energy by sun and some get their energy by oxidizing inorganic compound. Some bacteria generate energy by breaking down organic compounds for example, amino acid and sugars. There are bacteria that need oxygen in to produce energy but bacteria can reproduce with or without oxygen.

Bacterial Structure
There are caps...


... middle of paper ...


...phabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.

DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.

An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell






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