The most commonly used mindfulness based Interventions (MBI) used are the mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (Gu, Strauss, Bond & Cavanagh, 2015). Mindfulness based stress reduction was originally developed to treat chronic pain patients and was developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn (Lorentz, 2011). The MBSR is a group-based training that is held once a week, over an eight-week period for 2.5 hours per session. A variety of techniques are used to teach mindfulness. A combination of lecture series on mindfulness, group discussions and instruction mindfulness techniques (e.g. meditation, body-scan, breathing awareness, empathy awareness) are used to teach participants about mindfulness. (Malcoun, 2008).
Mindfulness based cognitive therapy is similar to the MBSR except that it teaches participants to be aware of thought distortions leading to negative feelings and replace them with positive thoughts (Malcoun, 2008). “The focus of MBCT is to encourage individuals to focus on the moment in a non-judgmental way and to let it pass without further thought or concern” (Felder, Dimidjian & Segal, 2012). This type of training is also taught in a group setting held over an eight-week period for 2.5 hours per session.
Mindfulness originates from a deeply rooted system of contemplative practice. An individual cannot achieve the benefits of mindfulness training unless they continue practicing mindfulness techniques after the training is completed. By practicing meditation on a regular basis, mindfulness becomes an intentional practice (Holas & Jankowski, 2013).
The type of measurements used in mindfulness-based interventions is self-reporting questionnaires. A...
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...f mindfulness in order to predict overall well-being of participants. Results showed that the facets of describing, non-judging and non-reactivity each accounted for significant variance in well-being (β = .22, .30, and .22, p< .05), (Baer, et al., 2008).
Generally speaking, questionnaires used to measure mindfulness based interventions are self-reporting, therefore it is difficult to interpret as to if the success is from the training itself, from a combination of the training and individual practice, or a combination of both (Malcoun, 2008). Measures are evaluated on a participant’s perception of mindfulness practice, making it difficult to interpret the data or criteria used to interpret the data (Malcoun, 2008). Studies reviewed typically use a pre-test/post-test experimental design, and then perform a follow-up test to determine if the training was temporal.
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