107th Congress. (2001, September 18). “Public Law 107-40: Authorization for Use of Military Force.” United States Congress.
Essential document providing for the use of military force and by extension, the use of drones, against terrorism and terrorist organizations.
112th Congress. (2012, January 5). “H.R. 1540: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012.” United States Congress.
This document authorizes defense expenditures for FY2012, which includes increased funding for the expansion of US drone programs. The budget for any covert program is classified and therefore not included. Assessment: Provides sup-porting evidence of the US’ increasing use of drones, but lacks details that would likely be significant to most research on drone use overseas.
J. M. Beard, “Law and War in the Virtual Era,” The American Journal of International Law, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 409-445, July 2009.
Beard’s paper examines the rise of technology and its impact on military capabilities. In particular, the paper studies virtual military technologies, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, and how “virtual distance” is changing warfare while simultaneously influencing operations and military culture. Finally, Beard asserts that virtual military technologies are “revitalizing”jus in bello principles, including the importance of shielding civilians from conflict. Assessment: Beard’s pa-per is both interesting and informative in its subject and approach. It is one of the more thorough examinations of the effects of technology on military capabilities, operations, and culture. Because it addresses the use of virtual technologies, it is an important read for understanding the impacts had by these technologies on the side using them.
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...akness, Irregular Warfare, and the Right to Self-Defense Post 9/11,” The American Journal of International Law, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 244-286, April 2011.
Reinold’s paper examines two different “safe haven” scenarios: states that are unable, and states that are unwilling to assert control over their territorial entirety. Reinold then evaluates these scenarios in the context of jus ad bellum and the rights of states to self-defense against irregular force in the post 9/11 security environment. It’s an informative piece examining the development of the concept of safe havens and accompanying legal justifications for self-defense. Provides a thorough examination of how the terrorist attacks of 9/11 have shaped our understanding of safe havens as well as the legal concerns generated by them. The paper stays apolitical, and is even-handed in its interpretation of material.
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