Political ideals were an important and durable vision in the new Middle Eastern civilization. Political movement even during the 20th century returned to the idea that state and religion are one. But in practice the Abbasid and Umayyad rulers did not always keep interest in the faith. Many Abbasid caliphs were personally pious, which aided their popularity. Cultural achievement occurred in variety of fields, from art to leisure. Abbasid governments depended heavily on the whims of an individual ruler. A number of caliphs were cruel and arbitrary, often ordering the execution of not only political rival for the throne but also chief ministers. The caliphate, under the Abbasids, became very remote, not even very actively commanding its provincial bureaucracy. Local administrators have substantial autonomy as long as they returned satisfactory tax revenues to the caliph in Baghdad. They reduced the recruitment from the Arab population and used Turkish and Christian advisors.
The limitations of the government established by the government were not the whole story of Islamic politics. Their politics were more closely realized in the religiously run legal system that spread throughout the Middle East. Islam didn’t establish an elaborate organization. What they did was that they built and developed an elaborate body of law known as the Sharia, or straight path, and a network of judicial courts to match. This law reflected a mixtur...
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... most parts of Indonesia. Cultural unity was greater although it was affected by competing influences from India and china and blended various religious. Indian artistic formed helped inspire a number of great temples as well as their literature being spread widely. Indian influence also surfaced in the area of economics. They merchants helped encourage the considerable production of spices and other goods for what a wider market, which brought Southeast Asia firmly into contact with the central routes of world trade. As time went on by the 15th century the diverse religious map of Southeast Asia had come established. At the same tine the area played a vital role in the trans-regional trade network, helping to link various parts of Asia through sea trade. Its goods were highly valued and its merchants provided increasing competition for the Arabs on the Indian Ocean.
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