Micro Ribonucleic Acid Analysis Essay

Micro Ribonucleic Acid Analysis Essay

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Studies are being carried out using animal models such as mice and zebra fish to understand the importance of micro RNA in vascular development. Knockdown of micro RNA 126 in zebra fish resulted in loss of vascular integrity and haemorrhage during embryonic development (65). Overexpression of micro RNA 92a (66) induced severe defects in inter segmental vessel formation in zebra fish. An independent study reported that deletion of micro RNA 126 resulted in 50 percent of mice being killed.
Micro RNA 23, 24, 27 are highly present in endothelial cells and vascularized tissues. Knockdown of micro RNA 23 and micro RNA 27 suppressed endothelial migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor and cell proliferation. Zhou and his team found that micro RNA 23 and micro RNA 27 mediated angiogenesis through suppression of Sprouty 2, Semaphorin6A (Sema6A), and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) (67, 68). Sprouty proteins inhibit insulin receptor and EGFR transduced MAPK signalling pathway (69). Sema6A is required for development of the thalamocortical projection and suppresses VEGFR2 signalling (70). Overexpression of micro RNA 23b or micro RNA 27b repressed Sprouty2, Sema6A, and Sema6D, whereas overexpression of both micro RNAs 23b and 27b showed an increased effect (68). Zhou et al.investigated the development of new blood vessels using a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model (68). The expression levels of micro RNA 23a, micro RNA 27a and micro RNA 24 were significantly increased in the choroid region of the eye one week after laser injury. Intravenous injection of LNA-anti-micro RNAs targeting micro RNA 23 and micro RNA 27 resulted in knockdown of micro RNAs 23 and 27 in the eye instantly following laser injury. The choroidal neov...

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... and micro RNA 92 cluster and micro RNA 150 regulate B-cell differentiation. Overexpression of the micro RNA 17 - 92 cluster in lymphocytes additionally induces excessive production of lymphocytes and autoimmune diseases (77). Taken together, micro RNA 21, micro RNA 155, and micro RNA 126 might be important markers of vascular disease and vessel remodelling. In addition, the micro RNA 17-92 cluster and micro RNA 150 regulating B cell development as well as micro RNA 424, micro RNA 17-5p-20a-106a, and micro RNA 146 regulating macrophage differentiation are interesting candidates (72), which may be involved in inflammatory responses during various cardiovascular diseases. Micro RNA 221, 222, micro RNA cluster 17-92, micro RNA 210, micro RNA 130a and micro RNA 126 have specific functions in formation of atheroma on the wall of artery which is illustrated below(72).

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