Prejudice can be defined as the judgement of a group or an individual based mainly on group association. Prejudice is not necessarily negative. Ethnocentrism is an example of positive prejudice towards one’s in-group. Discrimination can be defined as the negative or positive behaviours towards individuals based on their group association. Discrimination may be obvious or subtle, either way both can be damaging. Although discrimination and prejudice often go hand in hand, there is a difference between the two. Prejudice is just the negative or positive view of others, whereas discrimination is putting prejudice into action. An example of prejudice would be that of ordinary racist remarks whilst an example of discrimination would be the execution of the caste system in India. This question assumes that prejudice is common in this world, and that this problem needs to be solved.
Psychologists have created four main hypotheses which can be used to solve this problem. The first hypothesis, the self-esteem hypothesis, it is said that if people have an appropriate education and higher self-esteem, their prejudices will go away. The second hypothesis is the contact hypothesis, which states that the best solution to prejudice is to bring together members of different groups so they can learn to appreciate their common experiences and backgrounds. The third hypothesis, the cooperation hypothesis, depicts that conflicting groups need to cooperate by laying aside their individual interests and learning to work together for common goals. Lastly the fourth hypothesis, the legal hypothesis, is that prejudice can be reduced by enforcing laws against discriminative behaviour.
In my opinion, we should always start looking to solve a problem o...
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...erson, MD, MSc, Robert H Friedman, MD, Arlene S Ash, PhD, Shakira Franco, MS, and Phyllis L Carr, MD. (2004). Faculty Self-reported Experience with Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Academic Medicine. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 March; 19(3): 259–265.
11. Andrew N. Christopher and Mark R. Wojda. (2007). Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Sexism, and Prejudice Toward Women in the Workforce. Psychology of Women Quarterly 2008 32: 65.
12. Czopp, A.M., Monteith, M.J., & Mark, A.Y. (2006). Standing up for a change: Reducing bias through interpersonal confrontation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 784-803.
13. Tajfel, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Social Science Information, 13, 65-93.
15. Prejudice & Discrimination Lecture Notes by Dr. Andrea Mechelli
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