In regions of low pressure, the wind circulates counterclockwise and inward, with convergence at the surface and divergence aloft. Low pressure systems are marked by clouds, precipitation and/or storms. In regions of high pressure, the wind circulates outward and clockwise, with divergence at the surface and convergence aloft. High pressure systems bring fair, calm and dry weather conditions.
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The advantages of infrared satellite image are: 24-hour availability, information about temperatures of clouds, and the surface in clear areas. The advantage of visible satellite image is that it gives detailed images of clouds, but a major disadvantage is that images are only available during daylight.
We call the current atmospheric conditions in a given place weather—it is something we look at in the short term, and it can vary a lot from day to day. Daily or weekly weather forecasts are useful for planning what to wear or for outdoor work, etc. Climate is the long term averages of weather variables such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity (to name just a few) for a region. It is consistent throughout the seasons, and determines big picture things for the region such as what kind of crops are grown, and how cities are built. A typical weather observation for Cleveland, Ohio is " Temperature :29 F, Wind speed: NE 6mph, dew point: 17 F, Barometer: 1024.8 mb, overcast, snow showers expected" (tonight's weather). This is consistent with Cleveland's climate, Type Dfa (Moist continental mid-latitude) which has hot summers, cold winters, and precipitation all year.
The four main divisions of the atmosphere starting at the surface are:
1) Troposphere: It begins ...
... middle of paper ...
... called orographic lifting.
It is possible for thunderstorms and tornadoes to form when the lower troposphere is conditionally stable when the air is cloudy. Conditional stability means that for clear air the atmosphere is stable; but for cloudy air, the atmosphere becomes unstable, causing the uplift necessary for storms.
In northeast Ohio, lake effect snow develops in early winter/late fall when Lake Erie's surface is warm relative to an incoming Artic stream of air from the north or northwest. The water molecules quickly evaporate into the cold stream of air and giant snow clouds form parallel to the shore. The colder the air is compared to the lake's surface temperature, the stronger the effect is. Southeast areas of the lakeshore are hit with lake effect snow because they are in the direct path of the arctic winds.
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