The Fertile Crescent had biological, ecological, and geographical diversity. Mesopotamia had climate variation, with winters being wet and summers being dry (Diamond 136). The semiarid climate initially made farming difficult and limited water supply caused Mesopotamians to develop a system for controlling the flow and direction of water from the Tigris and Euphrates. They used irrigation to stretch these rivers’ waters into farmland. Because these rivers regularly overflowed, floodplains were transformed into rich, fertile farmland. With the irrigation technique, the Fertile Crescent saw rise in engineering advances such as canals and dams. Irrigation was usually used in dry parts of Mesopotamia because areas near the rivers and the sea already had extremely fertile soil that was “made up of rich mud brought down by the rivers from the mountains” (“Ancient”). Moreover, the Fertile Crescent had a variety of altitudes and geography, which contributed to diversity in crops and animals. Big mammals, such as the goat, sheep, pig, and the cow were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent (Diamond 141). The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as Harappa, had rather ...
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...soil to be ruined my salt. This prevented people from successfully growing crops and feeding the population. People initially believed that the fall of the Indus Valley civilization was due to nomadic invaders from central Asia. However, some modern scholars suggest that long-term changes in the climate caused the fall of the Indus Valley civilization. The change in the monsoon seasons possibly caused majority of the population to migrate elsewhere (“Indus”). Though there is no accurate, main cause, scholars continue to search for reasons for its catastrophic population decline that eventually led to the fall of the civilization.
While Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization had some similarities, they had distinct differences. Their differences in economy, culture, and geography made each civilization unique and influential to later history and civilizations.
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