Mesopotamia and Egypt were both in flood basins of major rivers. Mesopotamia was characterized by turmoil and tension and in contrast Egypt was characterized by stability and serenity. The Mesopotamian climate was harsh and since the Tigris and the Euphrates flooded irregularly, nature was not viewed as life enhancing but rather considered to be a threat. Mesopotamia was located on an open plain without protection from foreign intrusions; therefore they were continually on alert. Egypt, on the other hand, was centered on the dependable Nile. The rich and fertile soil of the Nile Valley provided agricultural wealth. Even though the river was known to flood yearly the Egyptians had no reason to fear it. It helped them predict nature and they began to use this knowledge to their benefit. Since the Nile Valley was surrounded by deserts and the Red Sea, Egypt was free relatively free from foreign invasions. The Nile was also used for travel in their civilization.
The political structure in Mesopotamia during the Sumarian era had no unified government. Instead it had numerous independent city states. In the Babylonian Empire Hammurabi enforced his laws described in the "Code of Hammu...
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...heavenly salvation, and enjoyed the value of material items in their lives. Hinduism was against both and so there was controversy about this religion in the Indian culture. In contrast to the caste system in ancient India, Hinduism ranked people not by wealth and power but by their spiritual progress. Many pondered the basis of this religion. Siddhartha Gautama accepted many Hindu beliefs but altered the practices. He was eventually credited as the founder of Buddhism.
Hinduism would undergo many changes from its origins in Aryan society and became the religion of the majority of Indian people. Although it has been argued that Hinduism is not a religion. I view Hinduism as a legitimate religion in the Indian culture today. I have a great deal of respect for this religion in that it can supply the spiritual needs we as human-beings crave.
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