Fig. 3 represents cross-sectional optical micrographs of the single clad tracks for different values of P, V and F. Some qualitative features of the main processing parameters on the geometrical characteristics of the single clad tracks can be concluded from this figure. At the first glance, well-bonded single clad tracks were formed at almost all processing parameters. However, some of them, especially those with low scanning speed, had an inappropriate clad bead shape with a weak bond, which resulted in detachment of the edge of clad tracks. These imperfect single clad tracks were finally rejected and omitted from our measurements. In general, from Fig. 3 it can be seen that the clad height significantly increased with increasing laser power and powder feeding rate, or decreasing scanning speed. It can also show that the penetration depth noticeably increased with increasing scanning speed. At high laser power with high powder feeding rate and low scanning speed, high and wide clad tracks with low amount of dilution happened. Whereas, at low laser power with low powder feeding rate and high scanning speed, low and narrow clad tracks with high amount of dilution took place. All of these changes can be controlled by the combined parameter. Hence the dependency of different geometrical characteristics of single clad tracks on the combined parameter were examined via statistics for the purpose of quantifying the qualitative observations.
Fig. 4 represents the dependency of the clad height (h) on the main processing parameters, when it is plotted out as a function of powder feeding rate (F), laser power (P), and scanning speed (V). In this figure, a weak linear dependency of clad height on powder feeding ra...
... middle of paper ...
...action, it is possible that its effect to be eliminated by simplifying the fraction. Therefore, the dilution could be just proportional to F and V.
Concerning the last geometrical property of single clad track, the same statistical analysis for the wetting angle (θ) leads to the combined parameter as with a linear regression coefficient R = 0.98 (R2 = 0.96), together with the uniform distribution of the residuals (See Fig. 11). The wetting angle varied from 5˚, observed at the highest scanning speed, and the lowest laser power and powder feeding rate, to the values close to 86˚, observed at the lowest scanning speed, and the highest laser power and powder feeding rate. The combined parameter found in the present study for the wetting angle was in agreement with the majority of previous works, which reported combined parameters derived from P, V and F (See Table 1).
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