In Life Studies, Robert Lowell redefines himself against his father and the social discourse of orthodoxy in an act of recreation through spectrality and supplementation. The supplementary use of Freudian tropes allows him to shape a particular sense of self to introduce the ‘ghostly’ presence of his past in representing his relationship with the men in his life. In Grandparents, Lowell’s grandfather symbolises the patriarchal male. He expresses this through exclamatory tones “Grandpa! Have me, hold me, cherish me!” which carries echoes of a wedding vow to establish a feminized, dependant image of himself in a Freudian transference of desire towards his grandfather. Lowell’s symbolic marriage to his grandfather, locates his need for a patriarchal mode...
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... ideological and social constraints by modes of expression, Lowell, Modjeska, Bochner and Sullivan have taken fragments of their lives in order to rewrite these boundaries that constrain them. Accordingly, they negate the formalist notion of fossilized genres by embracing hybridism and fluidity as a projection of progressive culture, to allow growth and liberation in life through delimiting identity. \The innovations of these authors values both sociality and the dialogue between lives; as well as a critical approach to the past, which Derrida argues amounts to a form of fidelity, as in remembrance, whereby progression re-appropriates and takes the past into the future as an act of respect. Thus, these life writing acts are understood to be projecting towards democratisation in cultural spheres and the possibilities branching from the movement of society .
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