Maternal Effects Influences and Sexual Behaviors in The Zebra Finch Essay

Maternal Effects Influences and Sexual Behaviors in The Zebra Finch Essay

Length: 969 words (2.8 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Forstmeier, W., Coltman, D. W., & Birkhead, T. R. (2004). Maternal effects influence the sexual behavior of sons and daughters in the zebra finch. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, 58(11), 2574-2583.
The authors sought to present data on maternal effect on offspring sexual behavior in the zebra finch and whether these variation were due to environmental factors or byproducts of embryotic development. Little is known about the variant causes in both sons and daughters, though research suggests that carotenoids, vitamins, and immune factors become reduced as the laying order increases, giving the initial eggs the most resources. Factors looked at include hatching order, broad size, foster environment, and laying order. Some of the hypothesis presented where that individuals hatching early, hatching in small broads (more resources per egg), and early laying order would have better sexual selection traits in either sex. Another question was whether mothers have the effect of creating both male and female eggs with equally strong sexual selection traits like choosiness and song rate. In the study, male sexual behavior was measured by the aggressiveness expressed towards other males and song rate presented to females. Female sexual behavior was quantified in their choosiness of a male partner; one that is best or several to make up for not having the best one male. The maternal influence referred to in the study is not parental care like infant nutrition or predator deterrence, rather the composition of the offspring when the egg was laid.
The study included a sample size of 104 male and 104 female zebra finches. These were collected from the University of Sheffield. Most, 72%, of the clutches of eggs from thes...

... middle of paper ... This would suggest that it is not only the presence of maternal testosterone that accounts for differences in diversity, more factors must be involved. There was no significant variation correlation found between the initial nesting care of the zebra finch and song rate as this study and several others found. This supporting the idea that heritable traits are the most influential and are the ones the females are selecting for rather than size. Most often the strongest offspring are looked as the ones to parent the most offspring, it was interesting to explore the way the latent laid eggs still acted to increase their fecundity with the resources given, mating with more males rather than the monogamy seen with ‘”better” quality females. Even the males make-up for lack of aggressiveness or adequate song rather by expending more energy in better parental care.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Zebra Mussel's Invasion Effects Essay

- The zebra mussel is a small freshwater mussel, this species was originally native to the lakes of southern Russia. From their first appearance in American waters in 1988, zebra mussels have spread to a large number of waterways, including Lake Simcoe in the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi, Cumberland, Ohio, Tennessee, Michigan, Colorado, and Arkansas Rivers. Unfortunately, the invasion of the Zebra Mussel continues. For instance, in 2009 the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation confirmed that zebra mussels had been found in Laurel Lake in the Berkshires....   [tags: invasion, reducing fresh water supplies]

Better Essays
829 words (2.4 pages)

The Effects Of Social Influence On Behavior Essay

- The Effects of Social Influence on Behavior Social influence is generally considered to be the product of information shared among group members leading to common social norms (Simons-Morton, McLeroy, & Wendel, 2012). In regards to the Social Influence Theory (SIT), information refers to opinions, ideas, experiences from any and all sources, about a behavior or thought. Social norms refers to the knowledge, attitudes, values, behaviors, and standards of a population group that is accepted (Simons-Morton et al., 2012)....   [tags: Sociology, Social influence, Behavior, Leadership]

Better Essays
1408 words (4 pages)

Gender Role Behaviors: Biology and Society Share Responsibility Essay

- There are many different facets to the nature versus nurture argument that has been going on for decades. One of these, the influence of nature and nurture on gender roles and behaviors, is argued well by both Deborah Blum and Aaron Devor, both of whom believe that society plays a large role in determining gender. I, however, have a tendency to agree with Blum that biology and society both share responsibility for these behaviors. The real question is not whether gender expression is a result of nature or nurture, but how much of a role each of these plays....   [tags: Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes]

Better Essays
1524 words (4.4 pages)

The Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction” Essay

- One day 6 year-old Taylor came home from school and asked her mother, “Mommy, why is my tummy so fat?... A girl in the bathroom at school asked me why I was fat"(Canning and Wynn 1). The article “Appearance Culture in Nine- to 12-Years-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction” by Levina Clark and Marika Tiggermann tells us that is been said that adolescence is the point when it is most likely for body dissatisfaction to arise, but a growing amount of research suggest that it may develop earlier during childhood....   [tags: self-esteem, peer and media influences]

Better Essays
1744 words (5 pages)

Social Influences On Behavior And Behavior Essay

- Social Influences On Behavior It is not surprising that philosophers and scientists study what effects the social environment has on the thoughts, emotions, and behavior of the people because the world is very converse. Social psychology is the study of what effects groups have on individuals and how experiencing part of a group affects a person’s thinking, feelings, and behavior. People like to reflect themselves as independent, however, a person’s actions is influenced by the perspectives and engagements of the people around him or her....   [tags: Sociology, Psychology, Social psychology]

Better Essays
1022 words (2.9 pages)

Culture Influences Our Psychological Processes And Learning Behaviors Essay

- In this paper I will be describing three cultures that I identify with. The term culture is very broad and it can be applied in ways that one would have never thought. Many people can describe themselves using more than three cultures because of the many different social and ethnic groups that we belong to. These social and ethnic groups come in many shapes and forms but most importantly they are what helps make us feel like we belong. Culture provides us with a basic skeleton of how we are supposed to act and think (subjective elements) and also how we should dress and what we should like (objective elements)....   [tags: Gender, Gender role, Jean Piaget, Family]

Better Essays
2304 words (6.6 pages)

Reviewing School and Cultural Influences Essay

- Students who exhibit inappropriate, disruptive behaviors may do so for various reasons. The variety of explanations for problem behavior can cause confusion as to what specific interventions are best suitable for the individual student. There are frequent assumptions that knowing the cause of problematic behavior will assist with the best way to handle it. However, finding an effective intervention does not necessarily indicate the origin of cause for troublesome behavior. In fact, multiple causal factors are interrelated with the most common causal factors being family, school, biological, and culture....   [tags: Social Issues, Behaviors]

Better Essays
1846 words (5.3 pages)

The Media And Adolescent Behaviors Essay

- Over the course of the past few decades the overall behaviors of teens have changed rather dramatically. Teens are at greater risk of harming themselves than ever before. The number of teens participating in risky activities and/or behaviors is continuously increasing. There are two behaviors that I find the most pronounced: changes in sexuality/sexual activity, and the escalation of body dissatisfaction. Adolescents are highly impressionable and their behaviors are very dependent upon the information received throughout their lives....   [tags: Human sexual behavior, Sexual intercourse]

Better Essays
1032 words (2.9 pages)

Essay about The Zebra Mussel

- Populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), were first found in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1988 (Hebert et al., 1989). This species is native to the Caspian, Aral, and Black Seas and the rivers that drain into them but has spread throughout Europe, principally during the 18th century. Since it is restricted to estuarine and freshwater habitats, it is presumed that it was introduced into North America by ballast waters of transoceanic vessels. Based on the substantial amount of genetic variation found in these initial populations, as estimated from electrophoretic variation of allozymes, the colonization of the Great Lakes was by a large number of immigrants and...   [tags: essays research papers]

Better Essays
624 words (1.8 pages)

Cultural Influences Of Consumer Behavior Essay

- Cultural Influences of Consumer Behavior Understanding consumer buying behavior entails marketing, relationships, and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior comprises all the consumer decisions and activities connected with the choosing, buying, using and disposing of goods and services. Marketers must pay very close attention to consumer behavior that occurs before the purchase and after the particular product has been used. Studying consumer habits is one of the steps in marketing search and analysis....   [tags: Marketing Strategy Consumer Behavior Study]

Better Essays
1294 words (3.7 pages)