Essay on Materials And Methods Of Heat Treatment Of Whey

Essay on Materials And Methods Of Heat Treatment Of Whey

Length: 1313 words (3.8 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Materials and Methods
Heat treatment of whey
WPC (10%, w/v), prepared by ultra-filtration, was obtained from Agropur Cooperative (Saint-Hubert, QC, Canada). WPC samples were thermally denatured at 100°Cfor 5min followed by rapid cooling in an ice bath.

2.2 Shearing
Shearing was employed simultaneously with thermal denaturation using a Caframo stirrer BDC 6015 (Caframo Limited, Georgian Bluffs, Ontario, CA) equipped with a 4-bladed propeller rod with a diameter of 45 mm submerged in the whey solution. Shear was adjusted to 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 rpm.

2.3 Homogenization
Non-sheared samples were homogenized using a dynamic high-pressure homogenizer at 40 psi, 300 psi, or 10,000 psi, which led to particle size distributions of 4-6 microns, 2-4 microns, and 1-2 microns, respectively. Homogenization was employed using Emulsiflex-C5 apparatus (Avestin Inc., Ottawa, CA). Denatured whey protein solutions were mixed with milk at a ratio of 1:1 and stirred for 60 min. The homogenization was repeated 10 times for each treatment.

2.4. Cheese manufacturing
Lab-scale cheddar-like cheese samples were prepared with incorporation of 15% whey of total protein. Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) was used to replace the starter culture.

2.5. Analytical methods
2.5.1 Determination of the phage titer
The heat-resistant lactococcal phage P1532 (Atamer and others 2009) was obtained from the Félix d 'Hérelle Reference Center for Bacterial Viruses (www.phage.ulaval.ca). Phage 1532 belongs to the 936 group of lactococcal phages (Deveau and others 2006; Madera and others 2004), the most predominant group worldwide (Mahony, Murphy, & van Sinderen, 2012; Moisan & Moineau, 2012) (Mahony and others 2012). Its host Lactococcuslactis 7-18 was grown at 30°C ...


... middle of paper ...


...f milk: Yield = (weight of pressed curd)/(weight of cheese milk ) x 100. For comparison purposes, yields were corrected to the equivalent yield at 35% moisture. Moisture content of cheese sample was measure using the official methods (AOAC 1995).

2.5.7 Protein contents
The total nitrogen content of dairy samples was determined by the Dumas combustion method (IDF, 2002) using LECO equipment (Protein Analyzer model FP-528 Leco Instruments Ltd., Mississauga, ON, Canada). Nitrogen values were converted to protein values using 6.38 as the nitrogen conversion factor.

2.6 Statistical Analysis
Results were reported as Mean ± SE (standard error). Data were analyzed using SAS for Windows (version 9.4) followed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean comparisons were analyzed using Waller-Duncan test. A significance level of p0.05 was considered to indicate significance.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Materials And Methods Of Plant Materials Essay

- Materials and methods Plant material A total of 41 cowpea varieties were planted on the Horticulture farm, College Station on June 12th, 2011. These varieties were collected from different parts of the world including Africa, USA, and Brazil. Planting methods and data documentation in the field All the 41 cowpea varieties were planted in complete randomized design on Horticulture farm, College Station, TX, 2011. Ridges and furrows were made before planting and seeds were planted on ridges. Each variety was planted in a 4-row plot using a four-row planter....   [tags: Temperature, Thermodynamics, Heat, Flower]

Better Essays
1168 words (3.3 pages)

Essay about The Effect Of Heat Transfer On Temperature

- 1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND Heat transfer is by virtue thermal energy stored in temperature-dependent motion of particles. The exchange of kinetic energy of particles occurs through the boundary between two systems which are at different temperatures from each other or from their surroundings. Heat transfer constantly occurs from a region of high temperature to the region of lower temperature. Heat transfer changes the internal energy of both systems according to the Thermodynamics. The Second Law of Thermodynamics defines the concept of thermodynamic entropy....   [tags: Heat, Thermodynamics, Temperature, Heat transfer]

Better Essays
1224 words (3.5 pages)

Essay on Heat Flow Through Glazing Systems

- The characteristic equations for heat transfer in glazing systems are well established. However, when shading devices like venetian blinds are introduced, heat transfer becomes more complex. The complex fenestration construction (CFC) facility in mbox{ESP-r} was developed to manage the complexities associated with using window blinds in buildings. The CFC facility provides an avenue for modelling window blinds and screens. Also, dynamic control of slat-type blinds is permitted within the CFC functionality....   [tags: Heat, Heat transfer, Louver]

Better Essays
1599 words (4.6 pages)

The Theory Of Micro Heat Pipe Essay

- Heat pipes are passive heat transfer devices that can transfer heat at high rates over large distances with extremely small temperature drops without the requirement of external pumping power. They are commonly used for high heat flux applications because of an increased effective conductivity of the material. The basic working of a heat pipe is dependent on the capillary pumping of the fluid from the cold end to the hot end using a wick or a wickless design. Liquid is evaporated at the heated end, the vapor then travels back to the cold end where it condenses and is then recirculated back to the hot end by capillary pumping....   [tags: Heat transfer, Heat, Temperature]

Better Essays
1146 words (3.3 pages)

A Study On Synthesized Factory Made Whey Protein Essay examples

- Refine the topic: Whey Protein Synthesized factory made whey protein has been around for decades. To some weightlifters it is an essential part of their diet and they must have it daily. For others it is just another source of protein other than the regular beef or poultry. Today it comes in many flavors and there are hundreds of different brands of it. The supplement industry greatly exaggerates the gains that a person can make from protein powders. These false claims and misleading ads by fitness magazines and the supplement industry contribute greatly to body dysmorphia issues in adolescent and young adult males....   [tags: Bodybuilding, Anabolic steroid, Whey protein]

Better Essays
1552 words (4.4 pages)

The Advanced Materials Revolution Essay

- Steel: (for all intents and purposes) was invented in 1855 by Henry Bessemer(Mary Bellis). Science the amazing innovation that has changed the world incredible things have been made from the material from bridged cables and cross beams to arresting wires on aircraft carriers that stop monumental force and speed. It is truly an amazing martial, but eventually it snaps, breaks or tears due to the separation of the molecules. Also steel is not the most flexible material there is which may sound good for what it is used for, construction....   [tags: Materials Of The Future]

Better Essays
2119 words (6.1 pages)

Essay about Investigating The Heat Capacity Of Metals

- Specific Heat Capacity of Metals Daniel Rosalez 15 November 2015 Purpose The purpose of the lab experiment will demonstrates how to set up an experiment to determine specific heat of metals. You will measure the specific heat of steel washers and a lead weight. Equipment and Setup • 1 cooking pot to boil water • Stove top or a burner • Drinking glass • Tap water • Fork, spoon, or tongs • 4 washers • 3 Cups, Styrofoam, 8 oz. • Cylinder, 25 mL. • Digital scale • Thermometer • String • Lead weight Procedure: 1. Put water in the drinking glass at least an hour before you start the experiment, so that it will be at room temperature....   [tags: Heat, Temperature, Specific heat capacity]

Better Essays
700 words (2 pages)

Heat Energy, Convection And Radiation Essay

- Heat energy is transferred through three ways- conduction, convection and radiation. All three are able to transfer heat from one place to another based off of different principles however, are all three are connected by the physics of heat. Let’s start with heat- what exactly is heat. We can understand heat by knowing that “heat is a thermal energy that flows from the warmer areas to the cooler areas, and the thermal energy is the total of all kinetic energies within a given system.” (Soffar, 2015) Now, we can explore the means to which heat is transferred and how each of them occurs....   [tags: Heat, Heat transfer, Energy, Temperature]

Better Essays
1473 words (4.2 pages)

The Physics Of Heat Transfer Essay examples

- Introduction Conduction, convection, and radiation are all types of heat transfer in which heat is transferred from a system to its surroundings. As humans, we are in the presence of, and manipulate these heat transfers all the time. Heat transfer is very important to our every day lives as we try to live in a world where the temperature outside is not comfortable and we want our food cooked. Some people go out of their way to get more radiation to get a tan, or use convection while siting in a sauna....   [tags: Heat, Heat transfer, Energy, Temperature]

Better Essays
1260 words (3.6 pages)

Essay about The Constituent Materials of Concrete

- Portland Cement Association (n.d.) stated that in the simplest form, a blend of paste, stone, sand and water is a concrete. Concrete is one of the fundamental building block of the civilization, contributing to all the structures across the world. Concrete can be viewed in details in term of its constituent materials, properties, durability and concrete mix design and quality control. Constituent materials are the fundamental materials required to produce concrete. The constituent materials of concrete consist of mainly three materials which are cement, aggregate and water, with admixtures included as addictive to alter the characteristics of the concrete (Scalenghe et al., 2011)....   [tags: Quality, Constituent Materials]

Better Essays
1067 words (3 pages)