Maslow developed his ‘hierarchy of needs’ in an attempt to describe patterns of human behaviour, and to try to understand the processes behind the actions of consumers. In essence, his theory centres on the idea of ‘motivation’, which he sees as a driving force in a person’s movement from one level of need priorities to the next.
The above diagram, though not of Maslow’s own design, suggests the hierarchy of needs starts at the bottom with ‘physiological needs’, and continues up the pyramid, finishing with self-actualisation. Maslow’s theory identifies that there are general types of needs also described as basic needs they are the simple things in life that we must have to survive, such things as food, water, shelter and good health. These are known as your physiological needs. Safety needs represent the ability to feel safe and be away from danger, not being in a dangerous relationship or living free from abuse. Social needs are the ability to be loved and feel a sense of belonging in a society. Esteem needs refer to the individual having a good self-esteem and being in a health state of mind. These four categories of needs are known as ‘deficiency needs’, and Maslow suggests as long as we are ‘motivated’ to satisfy these needs, we are moving towards growth, and leading to self-actualisation. (mason.gmu.edu. 2004). At the top of the diagram is self-actualisation, which Maslow sa...
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