Rousseau believes total alienation, where people give up everything, is required to achieve a legitimate society. For Rousseau, total alienation of each person to the community means that no one is dependent on another person. Everyone has an equal voice.
2. Rousseau’s version of the social contract depends on his characteristics of “the state of nature”. Rousseau once said “Man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains.” Meaning, that our physical freedom is still repressed by our government and society. In his social contract, the people limit their own individual rights in order to create a better-organized society. He states that in the state of nature, we lack rationality and all morals, but that this is actually better than what society currently is. He goes on to say that only in society and in the context of his social contract, is there a capacity for moral reasoning. He believed that only through this way, are we even fully human.
3. Smith argue...
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...mes separated from his or her own humanity he or she becomes estranged from their own human potential. The act of production becomes disagreeable. It is human nature to produce. Estrangement from species being is not what is essentially human. The point Marx makes in regard to species being is that in a capitalist society workers are hurt and human nature becomes distorted.
Marx asserts the reality of the material world. Historical materialism states that the way human beings produce determines their desires. Economics is the driving force. Ultimately, its material forces of production determine society. Our labor creates something. Production of labor reflects our purpose. When our labor is no longer an expression of purpose we become estranged. Estranged labor takes away our species being because we suppress what distinguishes ourselves from other animals.
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