The source of alienation and discontent has been argued by many people, two major people being Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx. Marx believed that the source of man’s alienation came from society, specifically the economy and state. Freud argued that discontentment came from a more personal place, on more of a psychological level. Marx’s solution was to abolish private property, eliminating people’s feelings of not seeing their work pay off. Freud’s method to eliminate discontentment was for people to attend therapy. Specifically, Freud used psychoanalysis, which is specific to a person’s subconscious.
Marx believed that the more a person worked the more alienated they felt. To Marx “alienation consists of the lack of community, so people cannot see their work as contributing to a group of which they are members, since the state is not a real community” (Stevenson, 143). He also perceived money as a cause of alienation. Money is what drives people to be an active member in society, for example where they work. People must work to survive. Marx sees this as selling themselves to their job, which is a form of alienation. He then broke down alienation into different types of alienation. One type of alienation Marx discussed was the alienation of man from himself. This is when a man “does not fulfil himself in his work but feels miserable, physically exhausted and mentally debased” (Stevenson, 142). When a man cannot see how his work is contributing to society as a whole, he begins to lose motivation to succeed. Also, when all of a person’s time and effort go into their work it will become their identity. People will lose their identity in their work, that’s all they will be known for, rather than their hobbies or talents...
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...d Marx give two different explanations for the cause of human discontentment and alienation. Freud believes that man’s discontentment comes from the subconscious of the mind. The inner battle between the Id and the superego lead to feelings of discontentment and people should seek help. The best solution Freud discovered was psychoanalysis to help understand what is going on in a person’s subconscious. Marx pinned the cause of alienation of humans to come from money and work, which in all is the economy. He saw that people had become alienated from themselves through their work. Their identity was their work, that’s all that they lived for. He viewed Communism as the solution to this problem, this removes private property with was a major source of alienation. It would take awhile to reach Communism but the final result was worth all the time it takes to get there.
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