and mass emigration. In 1941 Iranian monarch Reza Shah, was removed from power by the
United States and replaced by his son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who Westernized the
highly conservative and religious nation. He continued implementing the Westernized laws set
by his father, which were known to "discouraged democratic political expression in the public
sphere" and condemned Islamic fundamentalism (Khosrokhavar 3). The largely conservative
citizens of Iran protested the alterations in multiple movements in response to the westernization,
financial failures, and perceived belief that the Shah was being controlled by Western powers for
control over Iran's vast oil supply. January of 1979, the Shah went into exile in Egypt and the
devoted Muslim leader Ayatollah Khomeini assumed power, reinstalling the strict, Islamic law;
"The Constitution allows all laws to be revised [...] by an Assembly of Expert, which is
dominated by conservative clergymen" (Khatami 122) . In 1980, Iraqi troops invaded Iran in
hopes of capturing the oil- rich country amidst the Revolutionary turmoil, further contributing to
Iranian emigration to European countries. The Iran Iraq War continued until 1988. The mass
exodus resulted in the "forced dispersal, immigration, displacement and establishment of
reconfigured transnational communities", now known as the Iranian diaspora (Agnew 19).Such
abrupt uprooting of a citizen's identity and physical connection to their homeland leads to a
conflicting sense of identity and belonging in individuals who are involved in the sudden
As a member of the Iranian diaspora, Marjane Satrapi endured many h...
... middle of paper ...
...2010. N. pag. Print.Parsa,
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Safizadeh, Fereydoun, Persis M. Karim, and Mohammad M. Khorrami. A World Between:
Poems, Short Stories, and Essays by Iranian Americans. New York: George Braziller,
Satrapi, Marjane. "On Writing Persepolis.”." Pantheon Graphic Novels 1 (2005).
Satrapi, Marjane, and Marjane Satrapi. The Complete Persepolis. New York: Pantheon, 2007.
Salehi, M. M. Insurgency through Culture and Religion: The Islamic Revolution of Iran. New
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