The key to reducing and eventually eliminating marine pollution is for everyone to be aware of the detrimental types of marine pollution, which are nutrient loading and sedimentation, sewage and human non degradable waste, and petroleum
Nutrient loading and sedimentation are two types of marine pollution that are quite similar. Nutrient loading is caused by the runoff of agricultural land and urban areas. The runoff from the agricultural lands are fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals used in crop production. The urban runoff is made up primarily of lawn fertilizers. “Studies released in 2013 indicated that approximately half the fertilizers and pesticides used in the United States end up in waterways and coastal marine environments”(“Marine Pollution”). The runoff nutrients are mostly Nitrogen and Phosphorus compounds. When the nutrients enter the ocean they act as fertilizers, which cause excessive algae growth. Nutrients can sometimes increase fish production but overall nutrients loafing for the coastal marine areas are detrimental. When algal growth happens a mucus film on the surface of the water grows, blocking light from plants, like seagrass, that need sunlight to grow and survive. The nutrients increase the growth of phytoplankton, which are microscopic ocean plants that are the base of the marine food web. With an overabundance of nutrients, only a single species, sometimes harmful, will overgrown the other phytoplankton. “Generally, nutrient over - enrichment(or nutrient loading) leads to ecological changes that decrease the biotic diversity of the ecosystem”( need to put site in for Nutrient - over enrichment article). Nutrient loading can create and enhance the toxicity and harmfulness of an ...
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...death by hypothermia. Ingestion of oil by fishes, birds, and mammals may also result in death”(“Marine Pollution”). Another source of petroleum pollution is from the city streets. Oil runoff from urban streets and sewers enter waterways and the ocean. Oil has a very long term ecological impact on the ocean and the marine ecosystems. “The presence of oil in marine waters severely degrades water quality by clogging an animal’s feeding - structure, killing larvae, and blocking available sunlight for photosynthesis”(“Marine Water Quality”). Petroleum pollution has been a large problem for a very long period of time. “As early as 197p, oceanographic ecologists noted that they could rarely pull a net through the surface of the ocean without collecting some form of tar or oil”(“Marine Water Quality”). Today 3.25 million metric tons of oil are polluting the ocean annually.
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