Essay on Marine Creatures : The Permian / Triassic Extinction Event

Essay on Marine Creatures : The Permian / Triassic Extinction Event

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Part A
Permian/Triassic extinction event:
The Permian/Triassic extinction event occurred approximately 252 million years ago, it is the most devastating known extinction event, eradicating up to 96% of all marine species and 70% of land dwelling creatures, its aftermath left earth with a significantly decreased biodiversity, resulting in a slow recovery of life, over 10 million years.
Marine creatures, suffering a 96% decrease in species diversity was the major group of organisms which suffered the most, due to a variety of reasons, one being the ocean acidification after an increase in carbon dioxide which affects the ability to create skeletons, as well as preventing proper breathing. evidence of the eradication of marine creatures was found in samples from south China sections at the Permian-Triassic boundary, the final two sedimentary zones show the disappearance of “286 out of 329 marine invertebrate genera” ("Pattern of Marine Mass Extinction Near the Permian–Triassic Boundary in South China"). Shallow warm-water marine invertebrates, which included trilobites, corals, and two large groups of echinoderms; blastoids and crinoids, show the greatest losses during the Permian extinction. However, the surviving marine organisms experienced a radiation in genetic diversity over the 10 million year recovery period, creatures such as: brachiopods, ammonites and crinoids.
Terrestrial organisms suffered a 70% loss of life, severe, but not quite as large as marine creatures. Invertebrates suffered, as the Permian/Triassic event is the only known mass extinction of insects, eradicating 8 or 9 orders, and greatly reducing the diversity of 10 more. Evidence indicates that over two thirds of amphibians, reptiles and mammal like reptiles be...


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...mans were in harmony with the landscape. For example, in 1998 David Bowman, an ecology argued that the early aboriginals did not have the population density or the technology to efficiently wipe out megafauna. Though, new evidence based on dating of megafaunal remains suggests that humans were the ultimate cause of the extinction of megafauna in Australia. The dates derived show that all forms of megafauna on the Australian mainland became extinct in the same rapid timeframe — approximately 46,000 years ago — the period when the earliest humans first arrived in Australia.

Climate change and removal of food sources and inability to sustain their large form
but these arguments have to account for the fact that megafaunal species comfortably survived two million years of climatic oscillations, including a number of arid glacial periods, before their sudden extinction.

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