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This paper is purposed to decide a suitable change model among the many model available for the change project which to be carried on the task B in the Group project.
With the keen business competition and the turbulent external environment, information flow and communication is far than important to support a fast decision to sustain the business growth. In order to enhance the fast and accurate decision, high degree of information mobility is crucial. It should not be limited on one location, but should also be easily retrieved. E.g. Access by internet on any location. It is planned to improve the filing system from traditional to electronically. This change project will kick off from a department of an organization.
Change model is important as Charles Handy mentioned that there is no certainty anymore in human things. People nowadays should be well-prepared on the change challenges where a good models will be able to take awareness knowing what and where to change, alignment of behaviours, systems, attitudes etc to what being needed.
There are three types of changing model being chosen in the selection of this project, they are the Balanced Scorecard, Lewin's model and Chartier's model. They will be discussed individually and then conclusion to be drawn which to be chosen to carry on for Task B.
The Balanced Scorecard
The Balanced Scorecard is a management system, it can make organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and then to translate them into action. It also provides feedback around for the internal business processes and external outcomes to continuously on going improve the strategic performance and the results.
It suggests that we look at the organization from four perspectives are the learning and growth perspective, the business process perspective, the customer perspective and the financial perspective. All these perspectives are to collect data and analyze it relation to each other.
When it is recommend
In general the Balanced Scorecard can be used on different industry. No matter they are private-sector, public-sector (e.g. Government) or nonprofit organization (Charity) (Kaplan & Norton 2004). It's just a modification on some of the important aspects. For example, some suggested that by using Balanced Scorecard on the non-profitable organization. Also, the Balanced Scorecard is more on business planning, when we through these four perspectives, we can see the problem and make it more clear.
It is limited because it needs close monitoring during the process.
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The Chartier model
An initial organisational disturbance is the impetus in rational problem solving, and has six response steps in the change process. Firstly, feeling a need & deciding to do something about it; secondly, actively attempting to define the problem; thirdly, searching for promising solutions; fourthly, applying one or more promising solution to the need; fifth, determining whether the problem is solved satisfactorily, if it is not, just repeating the problem solving cycle. Lastly, we need to evaluate whether the disturbance resolved (satisfaction or dissatisfaction).
Administrators, staff members or outsiders may implement the process of change. They can be act as five functional roles for facilitating change. They are catalyzer (person who promote the change process to keep it on track, it includes being able to stimulate, support initial steps, encourage productive activity and to foster problem awareness and definition), process helper (person who facilitate the process, it includes being able to define process factors, monitors and alter group interaction, promote need changes in interactions and inspire creativity and productivity), solution giver (person who find the solution, it includes being able to give information, present answers, help with group and provide background and clarify organizational responses), resource linker (person who provides the needed materials and support, the role of it to define factors affecting interactive situations as well as to define resources need of the situation) and stabilizer (person who maintains the core functions and direction during the change, such as provide support and assistance to who have unmet needs and to encourage the recognition and development of the team spirit).
These five roles of change agents are not mutually exclusive. A change agent may be a catalyzer, process helper, solution giver, resource linker, and stabilizer all at the time. Knowing how to be effective in one functional role can help a person to understand the others.
When it is recommend
It will be applied when a problem or issue that gains the attention of one or more people in the organisation. This is because it focuses on the process on how to change section part of whole company and focus on the task for our project. For example, there are dropping in sales volume, poorly performing unit within the organisation, increasing in complaints, and increasing staff absenteeism, etc.
It is difficult to bring about change from below, and requires a certain formal power. Moreover, it involves many skills and knowledge of each role, if only one person to act all the roles, the result may be not satisfactory, because one's power is limited. If there are five staff members to act the different roles, it requires high co-ordination skills between change agents. Also, equipment and staffing is provided as part of the master plan. So, we need to concern about the cost / benefit analysis identify the results whether will be achieved. If the top management does not provide consistent and strong support to the marketing department staff, will be present over the life of the change program for success.
On the other hand, a failure to build a case for change, lack of involvement by the responsible for working with changed process, inadequate communication and lack of visible top management support and commitment.
The Lewin model
Kurt Lewin is often thought of as the founder of modern social psychology. Lewin moved to America in 1935 and worked at the universities of Stanford, Cornell and Iowa. After leaving Iowa he established and directed the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kurt Lewin (Resolving Social Conflicts 1947) identified three phases of the change process.
The Lewin's model has three phases, they are Unfreezing, Changing and Refreezing. It has several assumptions include any change process invokes not only learning something new; usually no change unless there is motivation to change; organisation changes basic on through individual change in top management level of the organization; sometimes are adult change involves attitudes, values, etc. The last one is change like a multistage cycle run the business.
Stage one Unfreezing. It is focus on the creation of motivation to change as a complex process involves the three specific mechanisms, all of must be run in order for feeling motivation in individual to unlearn present behaviour or attitudes, so must set up the good relationship first.
Stage two Changing. This is the effect of creating the change collect the new ideas or sources of information and new concepts or new ways of looking at the old things get recognition and the majority of the related persons are stakeholders.
Stage three Refreezing. It is designed add the new resources support, use the report to give the rewards and create the new opportunity and continues the new behaviors.
Merging the Organisational Development concept with Lewin's Change Model leads to the following schema:
When it is recommend
According to that model, the complexity of the organisation change not only from the difficult of estimating the probability of specific change in individual (Edger H. Schein, 1989), so it is always use in the small company because the decision team is quite small, they can easy to change the organization structure and less staff working in the company, so if they need to get the new idea and run the new systems is more efficiency.
Compare with Chartier Model, this model's limitation is difficult to use in complex structure organization because the new ideas involve in stakeholders and must have the close relationship between boss and staffs; this model can't handle a lot of staff at the same time. Then, the main decision person must be made by boss.
What change model do we need?
Since each Change models have their own pros. and cons., we need to select a suitable model as to progress the change project. Looking through
below dimensions will help to analyse an appropriate model.
Model Balanced Scorecard Chartier Lewin
No. of staff involved Many Flexibility Few
Investment ($) $$$$ $$ $$
Large scale only (mgt. tool) No Great (shold be step by step)
Result/Feedback Time Long Moderate Fast
Management Commitment Level Very High High High
Chartier model gets no limitation. It can operate in large extend or small scale depend on the size of change task. Balanced Scorecard demands a large scale operation team to support the change process.
In respect of investment, Balanced Scorecard obviously needs a big sum of money to support the change operation process and require a very long term time involvement thus feedback time tends to be long. On the other hand, Chartier model requires reasonable money investment and time involvement which is more flexible on handling the change process. The five functional roles could be performed by an individual or five individual that depends on the scale of change task. Although the time involvement of Lewin model is very short, it needs to wait the top management for final decision making.
Furthermore, Balanced Scorecard gives only a general overall guideline or direction for the company to change. It doesn't direct the people to know what kind of problem that will be facing and the way to tackle those problems. Balanced Scorecard is rather a strategic implementation tool rather than a change tools.
Lewin model is relatively simple tool which only has three stages, and it require a very good relationship with staff. On the contrary, Chartier model is more comprehensive covering all the change levels.
At last, Chartier model also focus on the task and role of different change agents. Thus, we could assign different role and task to different person according to their characteristic or responsible position.
In order to select the right model for our task, we have discussed the 3 models in terms of its features pros and cons. Of course, different models have it owns special features and applicable to different situations and organizational environment.
Comparing the Chartier model with the Balanced Scorecard, Chartier model focuses on the process on how to change part of the company whilst Balanced Scorecard is more focuses on the strategic changes of the Company as a whole. Since the following change project is going to implement the change of the working practices of the Company rather than a strategic change therefore it is better to use Chartier model.
Viewing from the above arguments and details discussion and evaluation, Chartier model is a more organic change tool than the other 2 models. We believe that the Chartier model is relatively comprehensive and precise on the change model. As a result, it is more applicable and useful in solving the change project in our task B.
Edgar H. Schein Planned Change Theory Chapter 5 in McLennan Roy, Managing Organisational Change Prentice Hall International New York 1989.
Firth, David, (1999), Smart Things to Know About Change, Capstone Publishing Limited, Oxford.
Accessed on 20 July 2005.
Accessed on 27 July 2005.
Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, (2004), Strategy Maps: converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes, Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.