The Making and Unmaking of an Autarkic Physics in Franco’s Spain Essay

The Making and Unmaking of an Autarkic Physics in Franco’s Spain Essay

Length: 2173 words (6.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

The end of the Spanish Civil War brought a completely new kind of nation-state into existence. Never before (or after) Fascist Spain did such a conservative, militaristic, and anti-communist state exist in modern Europe. General Francisco Franco’s iconoclastic Spain demanded a complementary scientific structure. The resulting autarkic science was ideologically aligned with Franco, and wholly functional to state power. This autarkic science was not conjured up out of nowhere: it was created out of the ashes of Spain’s previous scientific structure, which was largely obliterated by the Civil War. A year after the end of the war, almost half of all former Spanish science university professors had been forced out of their position due to exile, Franco’s purges, or death.

The science of Fascist Spain was denied a life of its own. It was radically beholden to the state, so it changed quickly in response to changes in the state’s objectives. Because the Nationalists so successfully exorcised previous scientific tradition, the state was free to re-make science into whatever it pleased. Spanish science, then, clearly reflected Franco’s shifting goals. Drawing conclusions about, say, American politics from American science is often difficult because funding decisions are not wholly controlled by the state, and there is a robust scientific tradition of resisting total government control.

Scientists who shared Franco’s political views soon filled the university positions abdicated by Franco’s opponents. The new scientific elite was considerably more concerned with direct, practical application of their work to the military than those who they replaced. Scientists and mathematicians whose work did not directly benefit the regime...

... middle of paper ...

...nference of the European Society for the History of Science, Barcelona, November 18-20, 2010.

Sánchez-Ron, José M., and Roca-Rosell, Antoni. “Spain's First School of Physics: Blas Cabrera's Laboratorio de Investigaciones Físicas.” Osiris, 2nd Series, Vol. 8, Research Schools: Historical Reappraisals (1993): 127-155.

Santesmases, Mariala Jesual S., “Peace Propaganda and Biomedical Experimentation: Influential Uses of Radioisotopes in Endocrinology and Molecular Genetics in Spain (1947–1971).” Journal of the History of Biology, (2006) 39: 765–794 DOI: 10.1007/s10739-006-9112-6

Shneidman, J. Lee, ed., Spain & Franco 1949-59. New York: Facts on File Press, 1973.

Time. “A Defiant Franco Answers His Critics”. Time, 0040781X, 10/13/1975, Vol. 106, Issue 15

Wolff, Milton. FASCIST SPAIN: Menace to World Peace. New York: Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 1947.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World by Elaine Scarry Essay example

- There is a general consensus of what physical pain is amongst society. Pain is never good. It is something that hurts and no one ever wants to actually be in pain. In infants and toddlers, pain is associated with cries, tears, and the word “ouch!” As they grow into adults, pain and all of its expressions follow and branch out with them. Its dimensions multiply and what used to hurt as toddlers, no longer does. At the same time, they begin to experience new physical pains – pains, which create such an unimaginable physical suffering....   [tags: book review]

Term Papers
1105 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on The Colonization Of Spain And England

- There were two empires, their strength and influence unparalleled. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Spain and England dominated all other countries due to their willingness to explore the unknown. These two nations created a legacy and changed the world forever, bringing about new lands, resources, and people. The early explorations of Spain and England were led by similar driving motivations and spreading of religious beliefs, however, the outcomes of each country’s presence in the New World varied....   [tags: Europe, Spain]

Term Papers
1255 words (3.6 pages)

The New World : Spain And Portugal Essay

- The New World Spain and Portugal’s sea voyage with the help of Europe 's ideas of the globe were the leading reasons for discovering the world we know today. What lead to Spain and Portugal sea voyage was that they wanted to control trade with East Asia and stop dealing with the Muslims that controlled the trade in East Asia. After the Portuguese sailed around Africa they discovered the Indian Ocean. This gave the Portuguese what they wanted, a waterway that led trade ships to East Asia. Six years before this the Spanish thought that they were able to sail west to reach Eastern Asia....   [tags: Europe, Spain, Asia, Americas]

Term Papers
1033 words (3 pages)

Essay on Spain

- Spain or also known as the kingdom of Spain is a beautiful country with a very alluring geography, history, culture, economy, missionary effort, and state capitol. Since Spain is such a large country it is packed full of information to research about. Spain is also the origin of many holidays and practices. Just because Spain is a foreign country doesn’t mean it can’t be interesting to others. Geography Spain is a beautiful country with astonishing landmarks and geographic information....   [tags: Spain's Economy, Politics, Culture]

Free Essays
848 words (2.4 pages)

The Making and Unmaking of the Haya Lived World: Consumption, Commoditization, and Everyday Practice.

- The Making and Unmaking of the Haya Lived World: Consumption, Commoditization, and Everyday Practice In relation to the Haya of Northwest Tanzania, Brad Weiss constructs a model of coeval symmetry in which people engage in making the world around them but also engage in making themselves (4). His ethnographic analysis illustrates how relationships with commodities contribute to the constitution and reconfiguration of the Haya sociocultural world. Drawing from the phenomenological work of Merleau-Ponty, Weiss constructs the Haya lived world in terms of inhabiting both social space and time in an effort to show the relevance of this conception of the world to both the anthropology of the bo...   [tags: Haya Humanity Essays]

Free Essays
973 words (2.8 pages)

Applications of Physics For Different Industries Essay example

- INTRODUCTION Physics attempts to describe the fundamental nature of the universe and how it works, always striving for the simplest explanations common to the most diverse behaviour. For example, physics explains why rainbows have colours, what keeps a satellite in orbit, and what atoms and nuclei are made of. The goal of physics is to explain as many things as possible using as few laws as possible, revealing nature's underlying simplicity and beauty. Physics has been applied in many industrial fields, which include the air industry, construction industry, automobile industry, manufacturing industry and many others....   [tags: Physics]

Term Papers
1954 words (5.6 pages)

Framework and Physics of an Autogyro Essay

- To fully understand the physics of an autogyro, one must know what it is. An autogyro is an aircraft, similar to a modern helicopter in appearance, but with a few major dissimilarities. It, like a helicopter, uses an overhead rotor as its main source of lift. The rotor on an autogyro, however, is freely rotating, meaning it is not powered by any engine, and therefore applies no rotational force, or torque, on the machine. This nullifies the need for a tail rotor like that of a helicopter's because there is no need to stabilize the fuselage from twisting....   [tags: Physics Science Helicopter Aircraft]

Term Papers
2622 words (7.5 pages)

Essay about Physics of Catapults

- The ballista, or "shield piercer," was first developed by the Greeks using the same principles as a bow and arrow. Its primary use was to, as the name suggests, pierce enemy shields, since normal bows lacked the power to do so. Early versions of the ballista include the gastrophetes, which is nothing more than an enlarged bow that can be braced against the users body. As time went on ballistas were improved to become larger and more powerful, eventually becoming mounted mechanisms that could be operated by two or more people....   [tags: physics catapult]

Term Papers
1136 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on Women in Physics

- Outline In 1944 the German chemist Otto Hahn was awarded a Noble Prize for his work on nuclear fission - the process that lies at the heart of nuclear bombs and power stations. The Austrian physicist Lise Meitner, who was the official leader of Hahn's team, and who also worked out the theoretical explanation of their experimental discoveries, was not even mentioned in the Noble committee's announcement. (Wertheim) Thirteen years later the Chinese-American particle physicist Chien-Shiung Wu would likewise be left out when the Nobel committee made its announcements....   [tags: physics female females]

Free Essays
2049 words (5.9 pages)

Essay on Physics of Golf

- Golf is one of the toughest sports there is. The entire goal of the game is to get a very small ball into a cup that is several hundred yards away. What most people may not realize is that physics plays a role in just about every aspect of trying to get the ball into that cup. Every part of the game, from the tee-off until the ball drops into the cup, is affected by physics in one way or another. The purpose of this web page is to introduce you to the role that physics plays in the game of golf....   [tags: physics sport sports golf]

Term Papers
1959 words (5.6 pages)