The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Depending on the type of lung cancer, the treatment varies: NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery, while SCLC often responds better to chemotherapy and radiation (38). The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke (39). The occurrence of lung cancer in nonsmokers, who account for as many as 15% of cases (40), is often attributed to a combination of genetic factors (41, 42) radon gas (43), asbestos (44) and air pollution (45-47) including secondhand smoke (48, 49). Undoubtedly, tobacco-smoke caused lung cancer is impacted by inter-individual genetic variability that in turn affects the metabolism of tobacco-smoke carcinogens, similar to genetic impact on the metabolism of therapeutic agents. In this case, however, variable metabolism results in variable levels of harmful DNA adducts, and ultimately to cancer-causing mutations, rather than to adverse effects, as is case from chemotherapeutic treatments.
The use of tobacco products continues to be an immense public health problem, and one might argue is the largest voluntary source of human exposure to carcinogens in the world. However, much progress has been made in the past 20 years, not only in understanding mechanisms of tobacco carcinogenesis, bu...
... middle of paper ...
...dering genetic variations within this gene are beginning to emerge, and are further emphasizing its importance (64-67).
Both, environmental and genetic factors play a role in a development of most diseases, and therefore it is important to understand the interactions between these factors. In all discussions of environmental exposure (environment being defined as any external agent, including medications), the dose to which an individual is exposed is critical. Therefore, it is crucial to understand gene—environment interaction. The idea of genetic variants modifying risk for cancer upon exposure to varying levels of external agents first came from studies of metabolic genes in environmental carcinogenesis (68, 69). A portion of this thesis investigates gene—environment relationship in lung cancer by studying variations in the known environmental exposure pathways.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- One of the most dreaded words in America today is Cancer. The disease itself almost seems inevitable as if in some point of our lives we either have directly or will be indirectly be affected by the disease through friends or family member’s experiences. Lung cancer is a very common type of cancer; in fact it contributes towards more deaths than any other type of cancer. Lung cancer is so deadly that every year people die of lung cancer more than prostate, colon, and breast cancers collectively.... [tags: Lung cancer, Cancer, Oncology, Cancer staging]
1834 words (5.2 pages)
- Is there an actual prevention for Lung Cancer. Everyone has probably known someone that has been affected by cancer. Watching someone you love suffering from cancer is a terrible thing. Wishing that there is a cure or a preventative for it is everyone’s dream. It is now a known fact that Cuba has created a vaccine for lung cancer that is called “CimaVax”. This vaccine can help people that are suffering from lung cancer live longer. Lung cancer effects a lot of people around the world. In fact “lung cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world.... [tags: Lung cancer, Cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma]
1050 words (3 pages)
- Is lung cancer considered as the fatalist disease among all other cancers. According to the American Lung Association (ALA) (n.d.), in 2015, 13% of all cancer diagnoses and 27% of all cancer deaths in the United States have been because of this disease. In addition, in 2015, approximately 158,040 people in America, both men and women, are estimated to die from lung cancer. The principal trigger of lung cancer is smoking cigarettes. However, decade-by-decade, the proportion of impacted people from this disease is abating (Cancer.net, 2014).... [tags: Lung cancer, Cancer, Tobacco smoking]
1870 words (5.3 pages)
- How can lung cancer affect you. Lung cancer is a disease in which cells in your body grow out of control, which starts in your lungs. This type of cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and also the second most diagnosed cancer for both men and women in the United States. “In 2011, 14% of all cancer diagnosed 27% of all cancer deaths were due to this disease.” (Basic Information about Lung Cancer, 2014) “The American society’s estimates for lung cancer in the United States for 2015 are about 221,200 new cases of lung cancer and about 158,040 deaths from lung cancer.” (How Many People Get Lung Cancer, 2014) in 2012 lung cancer was the 4th most frequent cancer in the city of India, Globs... [tags: Lung cancer, Cancer, Tobacco smoking, Tobacco]
1014 words (2.9 pages)
- Cancer is an ever increasing issue throughout the world today. If you were told you were at high risk of having cancer, how would you react. Would you face the fact you have a low probable chance of living and cherish your last years, or would you find ways to avert this scenario from occurring. Most people are affected by cancer in some way and cope with the problem differently. One of the most common and deadly cancer is lung cancer. It is the leading cancer death for both men and women. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer causes 7.6 million deaths globally and 1.37 million of the deaths are from lung cancer, the most out of all other cancers.... [tags: Cancer, Lung cancer, Tobacco smoking, Oncology]
1070 words (3.1 pages)
- The Unbiased Killer, Lung Cancer In this essay I will be discussing cancer, specifically lung cancer. Cancer is an unbiased killer that knows no race, sex, age, or importance of its victims. I know this first hand having lost both of my grandparents to this “monster” in 2008 and 20012. As there are the millions of other people who have been effected by this as well. First, let’s start by understanding what lungs are. The lungs are two sponge-like, cone shaped organs in the thoracic cavity (Marieb, E.... [tags: Lung cancer, Cancer, Oncology]
895 words (2.6 pages)
- Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the world, comprised of a group of aggressive malignant tumors of the lower respiratory tract. According to a recent statistics published by American cancer society, lung cancer alone causes more deaths than pancreas, colon, prostate and breast cancer deaths combined (Fig. 1). Furthermore, the survival rate of patients suffering from lung cancer is also extremely poor in both developed and developing parts of the world. It has been reported that only 15% of lung cancer patients survive 5 or more years after been diagnosed with the disease.... [tags: Cancer, Lung cancer, Oncology, Mutation]
725 words (2.1 pages)
- Cancer refers to a condition where human cells grow and reproduce uncontrollably. These abnormal cells then invade a part of the body, spread, and destroy healthy cells. This type of disease is becoming more and more common today, as everyone is at risk as his or her age increases. Some other risk factors of cancer include obesity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet, and lack of exercise. It is estimated that about one in three people will be diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime.... [tags: Lung cancer, Cancer, Metastasis, Tobacco smoking]
1025 words (2.9 pages)
- Cancer is one of the fastest growing diseases in America today. It causes more and more Americans to lose their lives daily. Cancer is a group of abnormal cells that grow out of control. Studies shows if cancer is left untreated it can cause serious illness or even death. The human body is made up of millions of living cells. A normal cell grows, divides, then dies. Normal cells carry DNA, and when the DNA within the cell is damaged, the cell will either repair itself or die. However, in a cancer cell, if the DNA becomes damaged, the cell will not repair itself or die, but it will continue to grow into an abnormal cell (Kenny 2014).... [tags: Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Metastasis]
1532 words (4.4 pages)
- There are two different types of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. It is all depending on the size of what the cells look like under a microscope. Both of these types of lung cancer can grow differently which leads to them both being treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is the more common of the two and it usually grows fairly slow. There are three main types of non-small cell lung cancer and they are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
1669 words (4.8 pages)