The Main Themes Of Interests Within Psychology Essay

The Main Themes Of Interests Within Psychology Essay

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The study of personality is one of the main themes of interests within Psychology. Various personality theories occur and most of the general ones fall into four major groups. First is the psychodynamic theory of personality, Second, is the five-trait model, next is the humanistic theory, and lastly is the social-cognitive theory. Each of these viewpoints on personality attempts to define distinctive patterns in personality, incorporating how these patterns form and how people vary on a distinct level.
The psychodynamic theory was created in the early 1900s Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that the human mind involved three components: id, ego, and superego. The id includes our most nascent impulses, including sex and aggression. The id functions by means of the pleasure principle. Id is described to be like a newborn baby, completely selfish and driven by the most basic human urges and is motivated by immediate gratification. The ego is the psych’s executive and principal decision maker and is managed by the reality principle. The superego is our sense of morality. This includes the sense of right and wrong taught through an individual’s life. Freud states that personality is largely molded by conflicts that occur between the id and superego in the unconscious mind and are then mediated by the ego, which sustains it from conscious awareness. The disadvantage of this theory is that tends to focus too much on sexuality as a driving force of personality with little hopefulness about outlooks for personality growth during the life span. It has provoked a lot of criticism with its lack of supportive scientific data, and its restraints owing to the limited population on which its centered on. However, the theory still remains popular. Ad...


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...s are simply cognitive strategies that someone does to obtain a desired reward. An advantage of this theory is that differing reinforcement schedules can control behavior. It offers a tool in which to use the natural learning environment by social interaction to acquire knowledge that can be improved for personal learning. It gives an accurate picture explaining how behavior is learned. The disadvantages of this theory are that it reduces a persons’ personality into components rather than looking it as a whole. It fails to reason for individual differences and disregarding biological factors. It does not consider personality but rather people rationally react to situations. For example, it does not take into account the impact of hormones on one’s behavior. Hormones can affect a person’s judgment making capabilities and therefore changing an individual’s behavior.

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