# Magnetic Fields of Stationary Magnets

Length: 1224 words (3.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

#### Essay Preview

Missing figures/equations

My goal in writing this paper is two fold. Goal one is to try and understand how a stationary magnet exerts force by means of a magnetic field (even across a complete vacuum). Frequently, electromagnetic fields are compared to the gravitational field. Goal two is to explore the similarities between the two types of fields to see if comparison throws any light on the mechanism of magnetic field generation.

The term action-at-a-distance is often used to describe forces that travel through space and exert their effect without directly touching the objects acted upon. Newton's idea of instantaneous action-at-a-distance has been replaced by the modern action-at-a-distance which is transmitted at the speed of light so as to avoid conflict with Relativity Theory (Hoyle and Narlikar 1974). The term "field theory" either replaces action-at-a-distance or is used as the means by which action-at-a-distance transmits force. In this paper "field" will represent the means of transmitting forces such as electromagnetism and gravity, avoiding the need for the term action-at-a-distance.

Magnetic fields are frequently compared to gravitational fields. Gravitational fields cause a curvature of space-time. That curvature of space-time provides a mechanism for the gravitational attraction between masses. A magnet also causes a curvature of space-time. In fact a magnet can cause space-time curvature in several distinct ways.

MLA Citation:
"Magnetic Fields of Stationary Magnets." 123HelpMe.com. 16 Oct 2019
<https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=153455>.

## Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

## Misconceptions Regarding the Magnetic and Electric Polarization Essay

- Polarization is the separation of the negative and positive charges within an atomic object, a nuclear, and a chemical system. Through induction, the movement of electrons within an object mixes. The system or the object is has an excess of the negative electrons concentrated on one side while the other side has a concentration of positive electrons. This leads to concentration of the opposite charges on different ends of the object (Askeland and Pradeep 116). This paper studies the misconceptions and the confusions regarding the magnetic and the electric polarization....   [tags: chemical systems, electrons, negative charge]

Research Papers
1096 words (3.1 pages)

## The Magnetic Fields Of The Magnet Essay

- Introduction: Magnetism was not studied or utilized before 1821 as it is today. A few hundred years ago people understood how magnets worked, but didn’t have many applications of the magnet because they were limited by the technology of their time. The applications of magnets today have opened a new door as to how we can harness the power of a magnet. I had a basic working knowledge of how magnets worked, such as polarity, but with researching different aspects of the magnet I have learned that we need to advance the potential capabilities of the magnet and fully understand how we can harness the magnet....   [tags: Magnetic field, Electromagnetism, Magnetism]

Research Papers
1704 words (4.9 pages)

## Interstellar Magnetic Fields And Gases Essay example

- Interstellar Magnetic Fields and Gases Interstellar magnetic fields play an important role in our galaxy by returning stellar material back out into interstellar space. The magnetic fields are frozen in place within the hot ionized gases of the interstellar medium acting as an additional energy reservoir; the magnetic fields wear several hats regarding the work that needs to be done in our galaxy. However, there is still little known about the all of the roles the ISMF plays. There is a division between large and small scale fields; the former found on the scales of the spiral arms of our galaxy, and the latter found within the interstellar space....   [tags: Magnetic field, Magnetism, Electromagnetism]

Research Papers
1687 words (4.8 pages)

## The Physics Of Magnets, Developed And Designed For A Second Grade Class Essay

- The Science unit on magnets, developed and designed for a second grade class, will be used for my Teacher Work Sample. The magnet unit will require approximately twelve days, thirty minute lessons each day, to successfully complete the unit. A summative assessment will be administered on day thirteen. By the end of the unit the students will be expected to reach the following learning goals: 1. The student will be able to label the poles of a magnet and explain how the poles of magnets attract and repel each other....   [tags: Magnet, Magnetism, Magnetic field, Second grade]

Research Papers
1222 words (3.5 pages)

## Active vs. Passive Magnetic Bearings Essay

- Introduction A magnetic bearing is a type of bearing that holds up a load using magnetic levitation. Scientists first discovered the magnetic effects in magnetic minerals in 500B.C. In the late 20th century, scientists began developing ways where this magnetic effect could be implemented into a bearing, creating magnetic bearings. Today, magnetic bearings can be found in many applications where no physical contact is required or extreme environmental conditions exists, including very high and low temperatures....   [tags: magnetic levitation, minerals]

Research Papers
1669 words (4.8 pages)

## Essay on Physics of Magnets

- Magnets are one of the fundamental items in physics. This page is designed in order to provide a general overview of magnets and their uses as well as an in depth look into certain aspects of magnetism. We all know certain situations where magnets are used, hanging things on a refrigerator for example. But other applications are much more useful in our society. They are used in all kinds of speakers, and in many computer parts including hard drives and floppy drives ( for recording and reading purposes)....   [tags: physics science magnet]

Free Essays
1872 words (5.3 pages)

## Magnets and Electromagnets Essay

- Introduction Magnets have existed for hundreds of thousands of years and have been used by many different cultures throughout this time. Magnets have been useful throughout the years because they can hold two things together just through the force of the metal in the magnet. With the world’s constantly changing technology, electromagnets have been evolved from magnets and are more useful than a regular magnet but in order for an electromagnet to work, an electric current needs to be present (http://saxonhomeschool.hmhco.com/ha/Resources/saxonhomeschool/Holt_ST_PhysSci_Samp.pdf)....   [tags: Physics, Magnestism]

Research Papers
1030 words (2.9 pages)

## The Applications and Properties of Ferrofluids Essay

- Missing Figures The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain the properties of ferrofluids. Imagine the applications of a liquid substance that can be controlled at a distance by a magnetic force. To create such a liquid is not as simple as liquefying a magnetic solid. Magnetic solids lose their magnetic properties at the temperature above the Curie temperature of the substance. At that temperature thermal energy overwhelms the tendency of the electrons to align in regions of similar spins....   [tags: Magnets Magnetics]

Research Papers
1420 words (4.1 pages)

## Essay on Magnets

- Introduction Magnets are stones that produce magnetic fields. The magnetic field is invisible, but is responsible for the most noticeable aspect of a magnet: the attraction of a metal object or the repulsion of another magnet. Magnets are used in common everyday household items: credit cards, TVs, speakers, motors, and compasses. A magnets strength is measured by its magnetic moment. (“Magnetism”) How did it all begin. There are legends surrounding the discovery of magnets. One of the more common ones is that an elderly shepherd named Magnes, was herding his sheep in Magnesia, an area in Northern Greece around 4,000 years ago....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

Research Papers
837 words (2.4 pages)

## Essay Electric Magnetic Fields

- Electric Magnetic Fields Homes are filled with electric magnetic fields (EMFs), EMFs are created every time anything electrical is used. Hair dryers, alarm clocks, micro waves and radios are just a few examples. All these appliances cause leukemia, a form of cancer. High EMF fields are not very unusual. EMFs can pass through walls, so one can also be exposed to them from power lines and transformers. Using a hair dryer for 3 minutes would give the same exposure that one would get living next to a high voltage power line....   [tags: Informative, Expository]

Free Essays
297 words (0.8 pages)

### Popular Essays

A magnet has mass which will exert gravitational attraction and therefore curve space-time. Furthermore, a magnet produces a magnetic field which has both energy and momentum. Momentum can be demonstrated by the fact that a magnet will produce a force on charged particles, another magnet, or ferromagnetic materials. Both energy and momentum add to a gravitational field in the same way as mass. Therefore the magnetic field itself causes a gravitational field which will produce space-time curvature in addition to the curvature caused by the mass of the magnet.

However, the gravitational field and consequent gravitational attraction exerted by a magnet and its magnetic field aren't strong enough to play much of a role in how magnets attract (let alone repel) other objects. (http://www.sciam.com/askexpert_question.cfm/articleID=000245A8-3-1C71-84A...)

One difference between gravitational and electromagnetic fields is that electromagnetic fields can both attract and repel whereas gravitational fields only act in one direction. Virtual photons can cause both attractive and repulsive forces between charges by the transfer of momentum http://math.ucr.edu/ home/baez/physics/Quantum/virtual_particles.html. However, both mass and energy contribute to gravitational fields. Dark energy is reported to exert an anti-gravity force (Scientific American February 2007). This supposed anti-gravity force might (or might not) parallel the repulsive magnetic force.

The original reason for focusing on the field generated by a stationary magnet was to simplify the issue since a moving magnet generates an electric field. Also it takes work to move a magnet, so it is logical that the work would be a source of energy that enables the magnet to exert force.

Although a stationary magnet cannot affect a stationary charge, it can affect another magnet or ferromagnetic material which is not moving relative to the first magnet. At first glance this seems much simpler since there are no moving charges and no moving magnets. However the electrons in a magnet do move. This movement of the electrons represents moving charges and therefore generates a magnetic field.

Initially, the way a magnet can move other objects seems to violate the law of conservation of energy; work is apparently being accomplished without the expenditure of energy. However, when a magnet, through its magnetic field, displaces a moving charged particle, no work is done because the force is perpendicular to the displacement of the particle (work equals force over the distance the force acts).

A magnet cannot change the kinetic energy of a charged particle; only the particle's direction changes (Serway and Jewett 2004). Therefore, a magnet cannot act upon a charged particle that is at rest relative to the magnet since that would change the particle's kinetic energy.

When two magnets have the proper orientation, one magnet can be used to push the other magnet. However, no work is done (at least by the magnet), because work must be done to push the first magnet and that work is transferred through the magnetic field of both magnets in order to exert a force on the second magnet.

When one magnet pulls another magnet the energy comes from the energy stored in both magnets' magnetic fields. How does that energy end up in the magnetic fields in the first place? If two magnets are together initially, it will take a force to separate them. It seems logical that force could be stored in the fields. If a magnet is constructed separate from any other magnet, the energy must come from the energy expended during construction.

A magnet's ability to generate a magnetic field to transmit force comes from the alignment of its internal moving charges, i.e. electrons (atom nuclei generate insignificant magnetic moment). In most objects, the electron paths are not aligned and therefore no magnetic moment is generated.

The moving electrons in a magnet's atoms generate an electric current (I) in time (T) as follows; I = e/T = with e being the charge of the

electron, v the velocity, and r the radius of the electron's orbit. Magnetic moment () is the product of the current (I) x the area within the electron's orbit (A). A=, so ==. Since angular momentum of the magnet's electron (L) = mvr (m is mass of electron),.

There is another component of the angular momentum resulting from the magnet's spin. The point of all this is that the amount of angular momentum that can be transmitted by a magnet's magnetic field is proportional to the magnetic moment of the magnet's electrons and the spin of the electrons (Serway and Jewett 2004).

Charge generates electromagnetic fields. These electromagnetic fields transmit the charge's energy, momentum, and angular momentum. Even static fields can store momentum and angular momentum (Griffiths 1999).

The initial question of "How does a magnet generate force?" may resolve into a separate question; "How do charged particles exert force?" The force generated by charged particles is described by Coulomb's Law; F= k q1q2/r^2 (force equals the proportionality constant k times charge 1 times charge 2 divided by the square of the distance between the charges).

Coulomb's Law is very similar to the formula for gravitational force; F= G m1m2/r^2 (force equals the gravitational constant times mass 1 times mass 2 divided by the square of the distance between the masses). The mechanism by which charged particles interact through photons (real or virtual) may in some way parallel the way gravity is supposedly mediated by gravitons.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Feynman, Richard P. (1985).QED. The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton University Press.157 pages.

Griffiths, David J. (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.576 pages.

Hoyle, Fred, and Narlikar, J. V. (1974). Action at a Distance in Physics and Cosmology. W.H. Freeman and Company.266 pages.

Penrose, Roger. (2006). The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe.Alfred A. Knopf. 1136 pages.

Serway, Raymond A., and Jewett, John J. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers.6th Edition. Brooks/ Cole- Thomson Learning. 1283 pages.

Journal:
Scientific American (February 2007). Volume 296 Number 2 Pages 35-41.
Internet

http://www.fnal.gov/pub/inquiring/questions/antimatter2.html
Website of Fermilab.

http://math.ucr.edu/ home/baez/physics/Quantum/virtual_particles.html
Note: if unable to access this site, try pasting address into google. This seems to work in Opera browser.

http://www.mathpages.com/rr/s9-04/9-04.htm