Learning Theories Provide Instructional Designs With Instructional Strategies And Techniques

Learning Theories Provide Instructional Designs With Instructional Strategies And Techniques

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Learning theories provide instructional designs with instructional strategies and techniques which facilitate learning. Each learning perspective discussed in this essay is in terms of specific interpretation of the learning process. The specific learning theories in this essay are behaviorism, constructivism and cognitivism. The essay will compare and contrast how learning occurs in each theory, the roles of the teacher and the student, the curriculum and learning goals, and lastly, assessments.
Behaviorism focuses on behaviors and not cognitive or abstract activities. It involves thinking, remembering and problem solving. Additionally, behaviorism relies on expressed, measureable behaviors and the repeat stimuli that cause behaviors. Students respond to the conditions in the environment. Therefore, knowledge is given and absolute to the student. Learning occurs when students are able to provide the proper response to the given stimulus. The methods used by the teacher to enhance the learning of the students are the use of instructional cues, reinforcement (both positive and negative) and practice. When this learning theory is used, the students learn basic skills before moving on to more difficult skills. The role of the teacher in the behaviorism approach is to be the transmitter of the knowledge to be learned. She/he is the expert that knows the material. Thus, the students receive the information taught and demonstrate competence. All of the students in the class learn the same material in the curriculum which consists of skills that are taught in a set sequence. Therefore, the learning goals for the behaviorism theory are stated in terms of mastery learning. Activities used to achieve this goal includ...


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...ntic tasks and experiences, The content is presented holistically and not in separate smaller parts. The teacher adapts curriculum to address students’ suppositions and help negotiate goals and objectives pursue personal interests and purposes, use and develop abilities, build on his/her prior knowledge and experiences and develop life-long learning. Constructivism encourages teachers to provide students with their preferred learning style, rate of learning, and personal interactions with other learners. In the classroom, the instructor poses questions and problems that are or will be relevant to the students. She/he structures learning around essential concepts and is aware that the students’ points of view are relevant to the reasoning. She/he adapts teaching to address students’ suppositions and development and assess student learning in context of teaching.

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