Leading and Managing Change

Leading and Managing Change

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Organisational development is both a professional field of social action and an area of scientific inquiry”. (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.1). Organisational development does not have common definition; however, it has more than one definition that expresses the meaning of organisational development and change. Organisational development can be best described as a “system wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at enhancing congruence among organisational structure, process, strategy, people, and culture; developing new and creative organisational solution; and developing the organisation’s self-renewing capacity.” (Beer as cited in Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.2). It occurs through the cooperation of organisational members working with a change agent using behavioural science theory, research, and technology (Beer as cited in Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.2). Organisational development and change management deal with the effective implementation of planned change (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.3). The two terms deal with the leadership issues and the change process (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.3). Change is very critical process for every organisation and it is a characteristic of organisational development. Change is moving from one state to another; it is the inevitable aspect of life and the essence of any organisation (sharma,2007,p.1);it is the only constant and is moving target as change pace became so rapid so it needs effective management and leadership to be successfully implemented (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.27).



Change Management:
Management and change are interrelated. It is impossible to undertake a journey without addressing its purpose (Paton and Mccalman, 2008, p.3). “Managing change is about handling the complexities of change; it is about evaluating, planning, and implementing operational tactics and strategies” (Paton and Mccalman, 2008, p.3). According to Armenikas and Bedeian organisational change is greatly responsive to management; its possibility remains high as managers strive for successful and perfect change in the organisation (Paton and Mccalman, 2008, p.3). Change management is a complex, and dynamic process; it is about finding best fit for the organisation to get best results (Paton and Mccalman, 2008, p.4). The environment is rapidly changing resulting from changes in technologies, customers’ preferences, alteration in the economy and many other factors (Paton and Mccalman, 2008, p.10) so organisations have to take the journey of change to cope with the external forces facing them and that is done through management.
In order to be able to manage change effectively, managers have to look to the faults and problems found in the organisation, putting alternatives and stating its pros and cons, decide on the future state of the organisation and then implement the change process (Paton and Mccalman,2008,p.

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16). Managers are required to understand the degree of change in the organisation as a whole not as parts of it (Sharma, 2007, p.2).”Implementation of change is categorized into two approaches- the participative and directive” (Sharma, 2007, p.11). organisation’s members should be involved in change process and given the opportunities to share ideas that may improve organisation and lead to innovation, however, sometimes it does not needed to make the members participate as the change in this case discontinuous and has to rapidly implemented (Shrama,2007,p.11). The change management has some activities that contribute to effective change management. These activities are motivating change, creating vision, developing political support, managing the transition, and sustaining momentum (Cummings and Worley, 2009, 164). First, motivating change is done through creating readiness for change, and overcoming resistance to change. This activity helps the organisation to make members convinced of change process and that by measuring their readiness for change and then overcoming resistance to change through providing the employees with empathy and support which learning how people experiencing change, communication with the employees to reduce fear that they may feel, participation and involvement of organisation’s members who can provide ideas and that can be used in innovations (Cumming and Worley, 2009, p.167). Second, creating vision of how the members want to see the organisation. It should generate commitment using involvement-oriented (Guha, Grover, Kettinger, and Teng, 1997) management and describes guiding values toward the future where change is directed (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.169).the vision should also describe the ideology of the organisation to know the core purpose which is the reason of organisation’s existence (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.170). Constructing the envisioned future is a context provided by the ideology which is specific to change and its complexities and scope of the future (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.171).” bold and valued outcomes” and “desired future state” are two components of envisioned future. The former is describing human outcomes that organisation wants to achieve; the later specifies what the organisation should look like to achieve the bold and valued outcomes (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.171). Third, developing political support where organisations are seen as loose structured coalitions of individuals and groups having different preferences and interests (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.173, 174). Managers has to manage the political dynamics of change through assessing the change agent’s power, identifying key stakeholders that have interest in changes, and influencing stakeholders who resist change and motivate them (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p. 175). Fourth, managing the transition, here managers learn how to implement conditions needed to reach the desired future (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.176). Making a road map for change and planning for the goals, manage change structure and direct transitions are the element of the fourth activity (Cumming and Worley, 2009, p.180). Fifth, sustaining momentum; it is the last activity in change management process. It involves providing human and financial resources needed for change to gain better performance during transition period (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p.182). As organisational change create sense tension to the change agents, managers need to build support system; developing new skills and competencies through change by demanding new knowledge from organisation’s members, but these could be happening effectively when only staying the course as change needs time to institute performance (Cumming and Worley, 2009, p.184).



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