The idea of modern policing and its implementation were introduced by Sir Robert Peel and his nine principles of policing including, This idea along with the bureaucratic structure was then reinforced by August Vollmer, Bruce Smith and O.W. Wilson. Professionalism was the first step in the direction of new, modern policing with the formulation of specialized police units and management principles borrowed from business administration (Walker and Katz, 2013). According to Steinheider and Wuestewald (2008), modern police organizations are mostly top – down, have centralized decision making and are extremely rule oriented, just like any large, modern day bureaucratic institution. Lastly, one important and possibly the most evident characteristic of p...
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Shane, Jon M. (2010). Organizational stressors and police performance. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 807-818.
Steinheider, B. and Wuestewald, T. (2008). From the bottom up: sharing leadership in a police agency . Police Practice and Research 9 (2), 145 – 163.
The challenge of crime in a free society : a report / by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. (1967), 91-125.
Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2013). Police in america (8th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill.
White, M. D., Cooper, J. A., Saunders, J., & Raganella, A. J. (2010). Motivations for becoming a police officer: Re-assessing officer attitudes and job satisfaction after six years on the street. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 520-530.
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