The title of the work indicates the first big difference to the Republic. Plato has turned from the rule of Philosophers (Philosopher Kings) to the rule of law. Indeed if I sketch a brief outline of the second best state, it is evident that it is designed in part to st...
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...l person because being moral, being reasonable, being happy, being sane, being free, and being fully human are all the same thing. One whose soul is not well-ordered, not ruled by reason, is psychically disintegrated, unhappy, immoral, a slave to passion and less than human. The psychically disintegrated soul is sick; it is afflicted with akrasia (the state of acting against ones better judgement, i.e. reason). Plato, in the Republic, holds that all individuals have rational faculties and thus the capacity to reason and for correct harmony in the soul ; the rational, allied with the spirited ruling over the appetitive. Plato at this point in his life believes that through education, and crucially early education (before the age of ten), if people can be thought the importance of moderation and harmony then the rational part of the soul will govern the appetitive .
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