"Having Down syndrome is like being born normal. I am just like you and you are just like me. We are all born in different ways, that is the way I can describe it. I have a normal life"(Burke, C., n.d.). Where special education is concerned, one must always remember that exceptional learners are different, not less. In the following studies, the various strengths and weaknesses of the language and communication of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is reviewed and discussed.
Language is defined as the method of human communication either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words, in a structured or conventional way. Communication is the interaction or exchange of information or news(Webster, 2013).
Down syndrome, a genetic disorder, is the most common cause for intellectual disabilities, occurring at an average of one out of every 700 births (CDS, 2006). This disorder is caused by the extra chromosome 21 (also known as Trisomy 21). According to Hassold and Sherman (2002), the probability of giving birth to a child with DS is not linked to any race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status or geographic location. Maternal age seems to be the only etiological factor that may cause DS.
Some characteristics of DS are: deep folds at the corners of the eyes, hypotonia, short stature, flexible joints, small oral cavity and heart defects (Taylor, Richards, & Brady, 2005). Most individuals with DS have a moderate intellectual disability, although there is a range of disability, from severe to high functioning (IQ above 70). Since DS is a birth defect and not a disease, there are no treatment options. Improvement can be made through physicians, special education, physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and psychol...
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...sek J. (2009). Language Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome. National Institutes of Health. pp.112-132.
Lecas, J., Mazaud A., & Reibel, E.(2011). Using Visual Strategies to Support Verbal Comprehension in Adolescent with Down Syndrome. Child Language Teaching and Therapy 27(1) 84-96.
Vilaseca, R. & Del Rio M. (2004). Language acquisition by children with Down syndrome: a naturalistic approach to assisting language acquisition. Child Language Teaching and Therapy pp. 163-180.
Adamson, L., Bakerman, R., Deckner, D. & Romskey, M.(2008). Joint Engagement and the Emergence of Language in Children with Autism and Down Syndrome.
Cleave, P., Bird, E., Czutrin, R., & Smith, L.(2012) A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. pp. 332-342.
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- History: Down Syndrome was discovered in 1866 by a British physician named John Langdon Down, which is where the name Down Syndrome came from. This genetic disorder was first referred to as Mongolism. The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early 1970s. In 1959, a French Pediatrician/Geneticist Professor Jerome Lejeune had discovered that people with this disorder have one extra chromosome. In the 1960s when children with Down Syndrome were born, they were put into institutions right after birth.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]
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- Down syndrome is a variance in chromosome 21 that manifests with cognitive delay, muscle hypotonia, characteristic facies, and short stature. (Glanzman, 2015 & Powell-Hamilton, 2012) The genetic disorder was named after the Physician John Langdon Down, who had originally in 1866 labeled those with the genetic abnormality as “Mongoloids”; Down indicated his choice of term for the children because of their appearance was allegedly similar to those from Mongolia and at the time it was believed that those who were of Mongolian decent were to have halted development.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]
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- History: Down Syndrome was discovered in 1866 by a British physician named John Langdon Down, which is where the name Down Syndrome came from. This genetic disorder was first referred to as Mongolism. The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early 1970s. In 1959, a French Pediatrician/Geneticist Professor Jerome Lejeune had discovered that people with this disorder have one extra chromosome. In the 1960s when children with Down Syndrome were born, they were put into institutions right after birth.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation]
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- Down Syndrome People with Down syndrome are first and foremost human beings who have recognizable physical characteristics due to the presence of an extra chromosome 21. The estimated incidence of Down syndrome is between 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births. Each year approximately 3,000 to 5,000 children are born with this chromosome disorder. It is believed there are about 250,000 families in the United States who are affected by Down syndrome. Children with Down syndrome are usually smaller, and their physical and mental developments are slower, than youngsters who do not have Down syndrome.... [tags: chromosome disorders mental retardation]
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