Language Development in Individuals with Down Syndrome Essay

Language Development in Individuals with Down Syndrome Essay

Length: 2336 words (6.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Research Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview


"Having Down syndrome is like being born normal. I am just like you and you are just like me. We are all born in different ways, that is the way I can describe it. I have a normal life"(Burke, C., n.d.). Where special education is concerned, one must always remember that exceptional learners are different, not less. In the following studies, the various strengths and weaknesses of the language and communication of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is reviewed and discussed.
Language is defined as the method of human communication either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words, in a structured or conventional way. Communication is the interaction or exchange of information or news(Webster, 2013).
Down syndrome, a genetic disorder, is the most common cause for intellectual disabilities, occurring at an average of one out of every 700 births (CDS, 2006). This disorder is caused by the extra chromosome 21 (also known as Trisomy 21). According to Hassold and Sherman (2002), the probability of giving birth to a child with DS is not linked to any race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status or geographic location. Maternal age seems to be the only etiological factor that may cause DS.
Some characteristics of DS are: deep folds at the corners of the eyes, hypotonia, short stature, flexible joints, small oral cavity and heart defects (Taylor, Richards, & Brady, 2005). Most individuals with DS have a moderate intellectual disability, although there is a range of disability, from severe to high functioning (IQ above 70). Since DS is a birth defect and not a disease, there are no treatment options. Improvement can be made through physicians, special education, physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and psychol...


... middle of paper ...


...sek J. (2009). Language Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome. National Institutes of Health. pp.112-132.

Lecas, J., Mazaud A., & Reibel, E.(2011). Using Visual Strategies to Support Verbal Comprehension in Adolescent with Down Syndrome. Child Language Teaching and Therapy 27(1) 84-96.

Vilaseca, R. & Del Rio M. (2004). Language acquisition by children with Down syndrome: a naturalistic approach to assisting language acquisition. Child Language Teaching and Therapy pp. 163-180.

Adamson, L., Bakerman, R., Deckner, D. & Romskey, M.(2008). Joint Engagement and the Emergence of Language in Children with Autism and Down Syndrome.

Cleave, P., Bird, E., Czutrin, R., & Smith, L.(2012) A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. pp. 332-342.

page 11

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Genetic Disorder : Down Syndrome

- History: Down Syndrome was discovered in 1866 by a British physician named John Langdon Down, which is where the name Down Syndrome came from. This genetic disorder was first referred to as Mongolism. The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early 1970s. In 1959, a French Pediatrician/Geneticist Professor Jerome Lejeune had discovered that people with this disorder have one extra chromosome. In the 1960s when children with Down Syndrome were born, they were put into institutions right after birth....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]

Research Papers
1219 words (3.5 pages)

The Genetic Disorder : Down Syndrome Essay

- Down syndrome is a variance in chromosome 21 that manifests with cognitive delay, muscle hypotonia, characteristic facies, and short stature. (Glanzman, 2015 & Powell-Hamilton, 2012) The genetic disorder was named after the Physician John Langdon Down, who had originally in 1866 labeled those with the genetic abnormality as “Mongoloids”; Down indicated his choice of term for the children because of their appearance was allegedly similar to those from Mongolia and at the time it was believed that those who were of Mongolian decent were to have halted development....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]

Research Papers
1901 words (5.4 pages)

Essay about Genetic Disorder : Down Syndrome

- History:     Down Syndrome was discovered in 1866 by a British physician named John Langdon Down, which is where the name Down Syndrome came from. This genetic disorder was first referred to as Mongolism. The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early 1970s. In 1959, a French Pediatrician/Geneticist Professor Jerome Lejeune had discovered that people with this disorder have one extra chromosome. In the 1960s when children with Down Syndrome were born, they were put into institutions right after birth....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation]

Research Papers
709 words (2 pages)

Essay about Analyzing And Unraveling Asperger 's Syndrome

- Exploring and Unraveling Asperger’s Syndrome The developmental disorder referred to as Asperger’s disorder – more commonly known as Asperger’s syndrome (AS) – was first described in 1944 by Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger, specifically as “autistic psychopathy”. The year before, Austrian-American psychiatrist Leo Kanner published his findings on what he dubbed “early infantile autism”; ironically, despite these similarities, the two were unaware of each other’s work. “In Asperger’s original description of autistic psychopathy, the children, all of whom were male with normal intelligence, exhibited a quantitative impairment in reciprocal social interactions and behavior oddities without...   [tags: Asperger syndrome, Autism]

Research Papers
1014 words (2.9 pages)

Essay on Symptoms And Treatment Of Mosaicism Down Syndrome

- The sign and symptoms vary from mild to severe according to types of Down syndrome. For example; mosaicism Down syndrome will have less sign and symptoms because only few cells have extra copies of chromosome 21 and other cells are normal. The most common physical features include flattened face, a short neck, small ears, small hands, and feet, short in height (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Moreover, all children with this birth defect are affected with mental retardation. Wiseman, Alford, Tybulewicz, and Fisher (2009) stated chromosome 21 is responsible for mental retardation and health problems in Down syndrome because Trisomy of 21 has a significant impact on the deve...   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome, Prenatal diagnosis]

Research Papers
1639 words (4.7 pages)

Essay about Cri Du Chat Syndrome Description

- In 1963, Lejeune et al. introduced Cri du Chat (CCS), a rare genetic syndrome that results from a partial or total deletion on the short extension of the 5p (5p15.1—5p15.3) chromosome. This chromosomal loss results from a “de novo” mutation (parents have a normal karyotype) and causes altered brain development, resulting in microencephaly and delayed psychomotor development (Mainardi, 2007). Though CCS is rare, it is one of the most prevalent chromosomal deletion syndromes (i.e. incidence is 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live births) with slightly more females being affected, but with no significant differences pertaining to race or geographic area (Rodriguez-Cabalerro, 2010)....   [tags: genetic syndrome, 5p chromosomes, jerome lejeune]

Research Papers
2929 words (8.4 pages)

Autism Spectrum Disorder, Asperger 's Syndrome, And Autistic Disorder Essay

- Imagine a child lining up all his toys and other objects across the room for hours in order to feel some sort of comfort or control in his life. Then, frustration sets in when his older sisters came along and slightly moves some of the toys just to irritate him. This is something that occurred in our house daily. My sisters and I did not know why or what caused him to do these random acts, we simply wanted a reaction from him. However, we soon discovered my brother acted in these rages because he had a form of autism....   [tags: Autism, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum]

Research Papers
1003 words (2.9 pages)

Benefits Of Sign Language In Society Essay

- Sign Language’s Benefits to Society What more do parents want other than their child’s undivided attention. Children can use sign language to express themselves better, learning to communicate in a better manner. This method can also help the adults understand the children, which can spread mutual understanding between people in society. Parents need to teach sign language to their children and themselves for an earlier, deeper understanding to occur between the two sides. Teaching sign language should be mandatory as it benefits the society, especially the younger generation, by enhancing children’s communication skills and behavior, in addition to inducing an inclusive environment....   [tags: Sign language, American Sign Language, Linguistics]

Research Papers
1051 words (3 pages)

Effects of Five Life Factors on an Individual's Development Essay

- In this unit, I will be explaining how the five life factors effect the development of an individual. I will also explain how two predictable and unpredictable life events influence an individual’s development. Many events take place in an individual’s life which influences their development and these can be both positive and negative on the development. Positive events would be; getting married, having children, recovering from an illness and making friends; however, there are also many negative events that can take place such as; failing an exam, divorce, losing someone and getting an illness....   [tags: religion, down syndrome, disability]

Research Papers
1401 words (4 pages)

Down Syndrome Essay

- Down Syndrome People with Down syndrome are first and foremost human beings who have recognizable physical characteristics due to the presence of an extra chromosome 21. The estimated incidence of Down syndrome is between 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births. Each year approximately 3,000 to 5,000 children are born with this chromosome disorder. It is believed there are about 250,000 families in the United States who are affected by Down syndrome. Children with Down syndrome are usually smaller, and their physical and mental developments are slower, than youngsters who do not have Down syndrome....   [tags: chromosome disorders mental retardation]

Free Essays
902 words (2.6 pages)