Next, high levels of corruption in a state is crippling to all aspects of governance. Corruption undermines both the capacity to deliver services and the legitimacy of the state in the eyes of citizens and international actors. Corruption such as nepotism and cronyism also decreases participation as citizens become frustrated with the offices of government. The corruption that lower-level Afghan officials participate in gives citizens an impression that the central government is “predatory.” Corruption such as requiring bribes for the processing of documents is very problematic when trying to increase the legitimacy and capacity to deliver services of the state. The corruption that Afghanistan experiences is caused by many things, but chiefly among them are the lack of rule of law, the poor economic situation in Afghanistan, and a cultural element driven by desperation. The lack of rule of law means that corrupt officials can operate without real fear of recourse by the state. The poor economic situation in Afghanistan means that people in government jobs attempt to gain as much money, by any means possible, as they can. This is not to say that fixing the economy is the solution to corruption, however. Finally, there is a historically embedded cultural element to the corruption in Afghanistan. Relatives of government officials expect that their family members in power will use the powers of the office they hold to ensure a better standard of living and certain protections.
Then, Afghanistan experiences low r...
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...s. Afghanistan needs anticorruption institutions that are given the tools to do their job and actually prosecute violators. The third measure is “passing legislation.” Afghanistan has relatively few anticorruption measures that have come from the legislature, as most of them have come from foreign actors. Real, meaningful anticorruption legislation will show a commitment to stopping corruption and help the legitimacy of the government. Fourth is “developing rule of law programs.” A low rule of law is a large problem in Afghanistan that stems from corruption of the judiciary and local governments that are not beholden to the central government. Developing programs that ensure an independent judiciary that can enforce the laws without fear of assassination and bring local government under the purview of the central government is necessary to prevent corruption.
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