Lab: Which PH Breaks Down Albumin, a Substrase of the Enzyme Pepsin Essays

Lab: Which PH Breaks Down Albumin, a Substrase of the Enzyme Pepsin Essays

Length: 739 words (2.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Good Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Task 1
Extended Experimental investigation
Factors Affecting Enzyme Action

Focus Question:
This lab will be driven by the research question, which pH level has the most successful effect on the activity of the enzyme Pepsin (protease) in the breakdown of the substrate, albumin.

Pearson Baccalaureate: Standard Level Biology Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma describes enzymes as “protein molecules which act as catalysts for reactions. As catalysts, the real function of enzymes is to lower the activation energy of the reactions that they catalyze” (Ward, Tosto, McGonegal, & Damon, 2007). Enzymes are globular proteins that have an overall 3D structure. (George, 2014).
Glands in the mucous membrane of the stomach make and store an inactive protein called pepsinogen. Pepsin is secreted as an inactive form as it is a protein-digesting enzyme and this prevents the gastric gland being destroyed by its own enzyme through auto digestion (Roberts, Reiss, & Monger, 2000).
This inactive protein is kept in its zymogen (inactive) form until it is secreted into the gastric liquids of the stomach, where it is exposed and activated by the hydrochloric acid, and also by pepsin itself as a autocatalytic reaction (Ward, Tosto, McGonegal, & Damon, 2007). Once secreted, the mucus lining inside of the stomach prevents the functioning enzyme from attacking the cells (Roberts, Reiss, & Monger, 2000).
When food is digested, the food is forced down to the stomach by consecutive series of smooth muscle contractions called peristalsis. Once the food is in the stomach, it is held for a period of time in order to mix with the gastric juice (Cleveland Clinic , 2013). Gastric juice is a moist secretion containing hydroc...

... middle of paper ...

...tly. The enzyme and substrate form a reaction intermediate, and the reaction requires a less amount of activation energy when compared to the reaction between reactions without a catalyst present. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004).
The optimum pH of pepsin is 2.0 due to the lock and key theory and the collision theory that is most effectively reactive whilst in this very acidic environment.
This provides the necessary pH that sustains the shape or the properties in its most convenient state so that so that the reaction can be undertaken successfully in a shorter amount of time. Therefore, if the pepsin is placed in various pH environments of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 molar HCL and the substrate, albumin is added to each test tube of pepsin, then the pepsin placed in 2.0 molar HCL will produce the maximum amount of enzyme activity, as it is the optimum pH of pepsin.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Enzyme, A Biological Catalyst ( Purchon 2012 ) Essay

- Introduction An enzyme is a biological catalyst (Purchon 2012). Its most basic function is to speed up the rate of reaction (Enzymes (n.d.). Without the existence of enzymes in living organisms, the process of digestion would take weeks. The function of our muscles, nerves and bones will also decrease in efficiency (Purchon 2012). Therefore, the activities in living systems are dependent on and mostly controlled by enzymes. Similar to other catalysts, enzymes can be reused multiple times, however, their natural properties are easily taken away or altered by heat (Purchon 2012)....   [tags: PH, Enzyme, Protein, Acid]

Good Essays
1899 words (5.4 pages)

Essay about Lactase Enzyme Lab Report

- ... Quickly add 1 mL of lactase to the 2 tubes labeled “Milk + Lactase” and “Sucrose + Lactase, “ and 1 mL of water to the 2 tubes labeled “Milk + Water” and “Sucrose + Water.” Once each tube has their proper solutions start the 2-minute timer. Once the 2-minute timer stops, place one glucose strip into each test tube to test for the glucose levels in each solution. The glucose strips were placed into the tubes only for a few seconds and then removed. Use the test strips indicator to test the levels of glucose and record the amount of glucose you see....   [tags: biochemistry in dairy products]

Good Essays
1772 words (5.1 pages)

Enzyme And The Enzyme Of Enzymes Essays

- Enzymes are protein molecules that are made by organisms to catalyze reactions. Typically, enzymes speeds up the rate of the reaction within cells. Enzymes are primarily important to living organisms because it helps with metabolism and the digestive system. For example, enzymes can break larger molecules into smaller molecules to help the body absorb the smaller pieces faster. In addition, some enzyme molecules bind molecules together. However, the initial purpose of the enzyme is to speed up reactions for a certain reason because they are “highly selective catalysts” (Castro J....   [tags: Enzyme, PH, Enzyme substrate, Chemistry]

Good Essays
1073 words (3.1 pages)

Enzyme Lab Report Essays

- ... The test tubes were labeled as follows: A. Milk and lactase, B. Milk and water, C. Sucrose and lactase, and D. Sucrose and water. We then label our four micropipettes using a sharpie as: milk, lactase, sucrose, and water. Paper towels to rest the micropipettes may be an efficient way to keep the area clean and the micropipettes, and a timer to keep track of time. The four glucose strips to determine the results at the end of the experiment are by far the most important, and of course a lab bench to place the test tubes on....   [tags: function under environmental factors]

Good Essays
2179 words (6.2 pages)

Factors Affecting The Enzyme Of An Enzyme Essay

- An enzyme is a specialized protein that acts as a catalyst and facilitates complex metabolic processes. An enzyme, like any protein, is a polymer made up of a long chain of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids is determined by the DNA template in which it was made, and the amino acids are attached together by peptide bonds. Cross linking takes place between the R groups of the amino acids and forms a unique three dimensional molecules. The structure and spatial configuration of an enzyme, especially its binding site, is key to its optimal function and activity....   [tags: Enzyme, PH, Glucose, Starch]

Good Essays
2532 words (7.2 pages)

The Concentration Of Enzyme Concentration Essay

- In this experiment, in the first part, the best concentration of enzyme was determined by recording the absorption over time. In the second part, the best concentration was selected from the previous experiment which was C and the optimum pH was determined. Introduction In an article, ‘Lab Presentation’ on Prezi, the peroxidase enzyme was tested on factors such as enzyme concentration and pH. It was measured using guaiacol as it turns orange when oxidized; spectrophotometer was used to determine the rate of absorbance....   [tags: PH, Enzyme, Oxygen, Acid]

Good Essays
1603 words (4.6 pages)

Enzyme Enzymes And Its Effect On The Transition State Of A Chemical Reaction

- Enzymes are biological macromolecule that acts as catalysts and increase the rate of a chemical reaction. Without enzymes, life, as we know about it, would not exist. Enzymes function by deceasing the activation energy and stabilizing the transition state of a chemical reaction without altering the thermodynamic of reaction (#1 Boyer). At the molecular level, enzymes catalyze these reactions by binding to the substrate or reactants to form an enzyme-substrate complex. The reaction takes place while the substrate is bound to the enzyme and converting the substrate to the new product....   [tags: Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Catalysis]

Good Essays
947 words (2.7 pages)

Essay Factors Affecting The Enzyme Of Proteins

- Enzymes are organic catalysts, made of globular proteins. They speed up the rate of biochemical reactions, without altering the products formed or being chemically altered and are not used up in a reaction. Many enzymes require the presence of an additional molecule known as a non-protein cofactor. These include metal ions such as zinc and copper. Some cofactors are small organic molecules called coenzymes. The B-group vitamins Thiamine and Riboflavin are precursors of coenzymes. Due to their protein nature, enzymes are highly sensitive and operate most effectively at their optimum temperature, pH, ion concentration, and in the absence of specific competitive and non-competitive inhibitors....   [tags: Metabolism, Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction]

Good Essays
1225 words (3.5 pages)

Factors That Affect Enzyme Reaction Essay

- There are many factors that affect enzyme reaction rates due to the inherently complex structure that an enzyme possesses. Enzymes are composed of many different proteins that all have their own functional R groups attached. This structure is was enabled enzymes to lower activation energies of almost all reactions and thus makes them crucial to all life processes. Enzymes do this by coming into contact with a substrate. Once in contact, the R groups will either be attracted to or repel the substrate....   [tags: Enzyme, PH, Chemical reaction, Catalysis]

Good Essays
1687 words (4.8 pages)

Enzyme Essay examples

- The plot of enzyme activity Vs. pH is often "bell shaped" since two different amino acid groups of the enzyme are being titrated to different states of ionization at the different pH values. This means that only one of the two possible ionization states of the amino acid side chain is effective in enzyme catalysis - in other words, if an acidic side chain like Glu is involved in catalysis, it probably only works when it is ionized; since Glu side chain carboxylic acid groups have a pK around pH 5, at pH values below this pK, the enzyme will be less active; while at pH values above the pK, the enzyme will be most active....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
1727 words (4.9 pages)