Kant starts by explaining the three divisions of philosophy which are: physics, ethics, and logic. He clarifies that physics and ethics are a posteriori while logic is, a priori, but there is a third variable that interacts both which is also the foundation of morals. This is the categorical imperative or also known as the synthetic a priori. The categorical imperative or the moral law is the reason of individuals’ actions. Kant goes on to say “I should never except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (Immanuel Kant, Page14 (line 407-408)). This indicates that an individual should not do anything that is not their own laws or rules that cannot become universal to all individuals. Throughout the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant defines what categorical imperative is, but also its four distinct articulations.
The first distinct articulation of the categorical imperative is the philosophy of morality.as Kant mentioned “Metaphysics of morals has to investigate the idea and principles of a possible pure will and not the actions and conditions of human volition as such... Moral laws and duty are discussed in this universal practice philosophy” (Kant, Page 4 (line 390-392). This is indicating that morality is a form of pure and high degree of reasoning. Therefore, without pure reason there is not foundation for morality.
With morality one must consider the attribute of duty, which is another feature of the categorical impera...
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...an religion. Kant emphasizes that God should also abide an individual’s and universal maxims, but also there is no need for a Jesus (God). “Even the Holy One of the gospel must first be compared with our ideal of moral perfection before he is recognized as such” (Kant, Page 21(lines 406-407)). Kant emphasizes that everyone should be bound to the maxims, even God, because if God does not, then God is not good or has good morals. However, Kant goes on to say there is no need for Jesus (God) because he is a framework of morally good, and individuals have reason or maxims which are morally good. Therefore God is not necessary nor religion
Kant’s work on Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals explores the metaphysics of morals and reason with the understanding of the categorical imperative. However it also changes an individual to become enlightened and transcendental.
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