According to Kant, moral worth or the rightness of an action can be determined by whether an action is based on a pure motive or duty rather than primitive intentions like self-interest or a pursuit of pleasure. We have perfect duties and imperfect duties. These perfect duties (duties of justice) require that we never perform certain types of actions, that these duties can only be accomplished in a very specific manner. Imperfect duties (duties of virtue) are in a manner of positivity, that they take into account that we sometimes can perform certain types of actions. An example would be that we have a perfect duty not to steal. In regards this means that we must never steal. We could have an imperfect duty to help the elderly. We do this only with certain circumstances in which they do not intervene with our perfect duties.
Kant argues that actions must be in relation to being good in themselves. When we look in theory the onl...
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...rather be concerned with understanding the reasons people have. In accordance with Scanlon’s contractualism, he states that an act would be wrong if any sort of set principles for such behavior would disallow its performance under certain situations that no one could reject. Kant’s moral theory of actions that are morally right in virtue of their motives that inclines more duty rather than inclination applies to Scanlon’s moral motivation in such a way that reasons are more of a initiative. Scanlon’s perspective on moral motivation is that it does not require an impulsive state. That we can explain on how we act and go about acting in regards to our reasons. We have a reason to act and that reason alone could be justified by others. Simply enough when a rational person acknowledges a reason to act others do not need further justification on how to act as well.
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