Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Gutenberg, Hermann Hesse and Hildegard von Bingen

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Gutenberg, Hermann Hesse and Hildegard von Bingen

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was born in 1749 on August 28 in Frankfurt, Germany, and died in 1832 on March 22 in Weimar, Germany. Goethe was 82 at his time of death and he lived in Modern Times. Goethe was a German poet, writer, scientist, theatre manager, critic, and an amateur artist. He is considered the greatest German literary figure of modern times.
Goethe was born in a large house in Frankfurt, Germany. As Goethe was growing up he was home schooled. His father and his private tutors gave him lessons all the common subjects of their time, especially the languages. He was taught many languages such as, Latin, Greek, French, Italian, English, and Hebrew. Goethe also got lessons in dancing, riding, and fencing because his dad wanted to give him the experiences that he did not have as a child growing up.
Goethe studied law in Leipzig Germany. He disliked learning old legal rules by heart, instead he went to the poetry lessons of Christian Furchtegott Gellert. When he was in Leipzig he fell in love with a girl named Anna. In 1770, he secretly released his first collection of poems, which was named Annette. Goethe left Leipzig and went back to Frankfurt to finish his law education. When Goethe was in Frankfurt he wrote his first book which was named The Sorrows of Young Werther. This book made Goethe very famous.
In 1775 Goethe moved to Weimar where he became the Duke’s chief advisor. In 1792 he helped the Duke in the invasion of France which failed.
Goethe was a very good writer and a very good poet. He traveled all around Germany to make a name for himself and write poems. Most of Goethe’s poems were made into music in later years by famous composers.

Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg was born in 1395 in Mainz Germany and died in 1468 on February 3. Gutenberg was 70 at his time of death and he lived in the Middle Ages. Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, printer and a publisher that introduced printing to Europe. Gutenberg invented mechanical movable type printing also known as the printing press. Not much is known about Gutenberg’s early life.
Gutenberg started to work on the printing press in 1440.

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For the next ten years Gutenberg was trying to perfect the press. The printing press is a machine that applies pressure to a piece of paper that rests on an inked surface made of movable type. By 1450 the press was in action, the first thing that was printed from the press was a German poem. Gutenberg needed a loan, he went to a man named Johann Fust. He asked Fust for 800 guldens, German currency at the time. In 1452 Gutenberg started to print the Bible, so he asked Fust for another 800 guldens. In 1455 Gutenberg finished his 42 line Bible which is known as the Gutenberg Bible. He printed about 180 copies of his Bible.
In 1456 Fust sued Gutenberg because he did not pay him back all of his money. Gutenberg borrowed over 20,000 guldens and did not pay back a single dime. The court ruled in favor of Fust giving him control of the workshop in which Gutenberg was working in and half of the printed bibles. This left Gutenberg completely broke and he had to start over. He opened up a small printing shop but never put his name on any of his prints.
Gutenberg started the Printing Revolution, which is the most important event of recorded history. He is also one of the most important people of the Middle Ages because he started Modernization and he introduced all of Europe to printing.

Hermann Hesse
Hermann Hesse was born in 1877 on July 2 in Calw Germany and died in 1962 on August 9 in Montagnola Switzerland. Hesse was 85 at his time of death and he lived in modern times. Hesse was a German poet, writer and a painter, his best known books were Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game.
Hesse was born in the Black Forest city of Calw which is in Germany. When Hesse was four years old he and his family moved to Switzerland for six years then he moved back to Calw. While he was in Switzerland he went to school at the Latin School. After that, he went to Maulbronn Abbey. Maulbronn is one of Germany’s most beautiful and well maintained schools. Once he finished up his education at Maulbronn he spent some time at a mental institution because he tried to kill himself.
After the mental institution he began working in a bookshop which had a focused collection in religion, philology, and law. At the end of every work day, Hesse, would work on his own books and poems. In 1897 Hesse released his first book of poems, this got him his first fan letter. In two years only 54 of his 600 printed poem books were sold, people thought that the poems were too disrespectful. After his first poem book his writings started to get better and a publisher started to take interest in him. Once Hesse got acquainted with the publisher, the publisher published his books regularly.
Hesse died in 1962 at the age of 85. Hesse was a great author and a poet that started at the bottom and made his way to be one of the top authors in German history. Hesse suffered from severe depression his whole life and almost killed himself. His depression was so bad that he could not go to his own mother’s funeral. Hesse is a very good author that rose to literary fame.
Hildegard von Bingen
Hildegard von Bingen or Saint Hildegard was born in 1098 in Bermersheim vor der Hohe Germany and died in 1179 on September 17 in Bingen am Rhein Germany. Bingen was 81 at her time of death and she lived in the middle ages. Hildegard von Bingen was a German philosopher and nun that is now a saint. Bingen is also recognized as a Doctor of the Church.
When Bingen was born she was dedicated to the church. Her parents sent her away when she was eight years old to live with a nun named Jutta. Jutta taught Bingen to read and write but, they mostly prayed, meditated, read scripture together, and did handy work around the convent. When Jutta died in 1136, Bingen was elected as the magistra, a female teacher, of the community by her fellow nuns.
Throughout Bingen’s life she received visions from God. When she had these visions, she saw all things in the daylight of God through her five senses. Bingen was shy to talk about her visions only talking about them to Jutta.
In her free time Bingen was a composer. During her lifetime she composed sixty-nine musical numbers and each of them had their own original poetic text. She invented her own version of the alphabet, her own language that was used between the nuns, and she opened her own convent. Bingen died in 1179 and was canonized in 2012 on May 10 by Pope Benedict XVI. Bingen was an amazing person and contributed a lot to the church.

Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg was born in 1847 on October 2 in Poznan Poland and died in 1934 on August 2 in Neudeck Germany, now in Poland. Hindenburg was 86 years old at his time of death and he lived in modern time. Hindenburg was the second president Germany and in 1933 appointed Adolf Hitler as a chancellor. He also had a long career in the Prussian army and fought in World War I.
Hindenburg was educated at a few different Berlin cadet schools. He was commissioned a lieutenant in 1866 and served in the Austro-Prussian War. Shortly before World War II, Hindenburg retired from the army in 1911 at the age of sixty four. Hindenburg was called back to the army at the outbreak of World War I. He retired again in 1919 shortly before his election as the president.
Hindenburg was elected President of Germany in 1925. Hindenburg was selected to run for public office even though he had no desire to run for office but, he accepted the selection anyway. He took office on May 12, 1925 and was in office until his death in 1934 on August 2. During his time in office he tried to establish a “presidential government” but, struggled for lack of political support. Also during Hindenburg’s time he appointed Adolf Hitler as chancellor of Germany in 1933. He did not like Hitler but Hitler forced Hindenburg to appoint him as chancellor.
Hindenburg died the following year after appointing Hitler as chancellor. Hindenburg served his country well and he did his best to stop the uprising of the Nazi Party. He has many things named after him such as the zeppelin Hindenburg and the SMS Hindenburg which is a battle cruiser. Hindenburg was a great president and served his country for a number of years.

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