Job Satisfaction

Job Satisfaction

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During the last decades, most of the social scientists have reached to a common understanding about the meaning or definition of the job satisfaction. Spector, 1997 cited in (VanVoorhis and Levinson, 2006), defined job satisfaction as the level of how individuals like their jobs as well as their feeling about different aspects of their jobs. According to Fogarty (1994) job satisfaction is “refers to the extent to which employees gain enjoyment from their efforts in the workplace"(Tuzun, p.729, 2007). Similarly, Locke (1976) has been defined Job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience" (Biswas, p. 28, 2009).
Job satisfaction is critical to retaining and attracting qualified individuals. Job satisfaction include specific aspects of job such as pay, benefits, promotion, work conditions, supervision, policy and procedures and co-workers relationships (Misener et al., 1996).
Kivimaki and Kalimo (1994) cited in (Al-Zu'bi, 2010) pointed out that employees who are satisfied in their work have more innovative in their work which contribute to quality improvement. In addition, job satisfaction found affecting customer's satisfaction in positive way.
Many researches conducted in different fields such as business, industry, medicine, social sciences, and education, reveals that job satisfaction is associated with employees’ performance, absenteeism, productivity, task success, turnover, professional attitude, and other social and personal variables that that have impact on the employees’ life.
Over the past five decades, the job satisfaction study has been of interest to scholars in organizational studies since the 1930s, when Elton Mayo had conducted his famous Hawthorne studies. These studies were concerned mainly on the effects of supervision, incentives, and working conditions in the job satisfaction. Results of a meta-analysis concluded there is a strong relationship between job satisfaction and performance (Tillman et. al 2010).
Job satisfaction is a mixture of cognitive and effective reaction to the different perception of what employees would like to receive in comparison with what they actually receive from their organizations. Job satisfaction has two sides - positive and negative. The positive side is where the employees are experiencing high level of satisfaction that leads to positive reaction toward their job such as high work quality, high productivity, high loyalty and organizational commitment as well as better health and quality life of the employees. The negative side is where the employees are experiencing low level of satisfaction (dissatisfaction) that leads to negative reaction toward their job such as low productivity, low quality, employees’ problem, high absenteeism, high turnover, and employees’ grievances that is affecting the performance and reputation of the organization negatively.

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The factors that affect Job Satisfaction are classified into two major groups, controllable factors, and non-controllable factors. Controllable factors which can be controlled by the organization such as employees’ satisfaction with pay, nature of work, supervision, organizational commitment, and organizational justice. Non-controllable factors that cannot be controlled by the organizations such as perceived alternative employment opportunities and job-hopping. Many studies found job satisfaction is a concept that have multi-complicated factors. There are many factors that affect employee satisfaction (Cranny et al., 1992 cited in Schroder, 2008; and Spector, 1997 cited in Lu et. al. 2005) these factors include the nature of work, pay and benefits, career development and promotion, communication, rewarding and recognition system, working conditions, supervision, co-workers, organization culture, organization policies and procedures, leadership style and job security.
It is worth mentioning that there are differences between the workers in the 1970 and 1980s and today’s workers (Andrew et al. 2002; Jennings, 2000; Karl and Sutton, 1998, cited in Schroder, 2008). Workers in the past had given high value for interesting work, whereas, today’s workers give high value for extrinsic factors such as good pay, job security, and issues related to life style i.e. flexible scheduling, work culture, prestige, and amenities.
Most of the countries are suffering a shortage in health care specialties, especially nursing. Health care institutions in Saudi Arabia are suffering shortages in this important field that delivers health care services to people. Studies conducted in some countries pointed out that job satisfaction for nurses are generally of low or moderate level. However, studies conducted in turkey found that job satisfaction for nurses to be at moderate level (Golbasi et. al. 2008). Thus, enhancing the job satisfaction of the health care specialties is very essential for health care organizations, which will reduce the turnover rate and improve the services quality delivered to patients.

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