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Job satisfaction is critical to retaining and attracting qualified individuals. Job satisfaction include specific aspects of job such as pay, benefits, promotion, work conditions, supervision, policy and procedures and co-workers relationships (Misener et al., 1996).
Kivimaki and Kalimo (1994) cited in (Al-Zu'bi, 2010) pointed out that employees who are satisfied in their work have more innovative in their work which contribute to quality improvement. In addition, job satisfaction found affecting customer's satisfaction in positive way.
Many researches conducted in different fields such as business, industry, medicine, social sciences, and education, reveals that job satisfaction is associated with employees’ performance, absenteeism, productivity, task success, turnover, professional attitude, and other social and personal variables that that have impact on the employees’ life.
Over the past five decades, the job satisfaction study has been of interest to scholars in organizational studies since the 1930s, when Elton Mayo had conducted his famous Hawthorne studies. These studies were concerned mainly on the effects of supervision, incentives, and working conditions in the job satisfaction. Results of a meta-analysis concluded there is a strong relationship between job satisfaction and performance (Tillman et. al 2010).
Job satisfaction is a mixture of cognitive and effective reaction to the different perception of what employees would like to receive in comparison with what they actually receive from their organizations. Job satisfaction has two sides - positive and negative. The positive side is where the employees are experiencing high level of satisfaction that leads to positive reaction toward their job such as high work quality, high productivity, high loyalty and organizational commitment as well as better health and quality life of the employees. The negative side is where the employees are experiencing low level of satisfaction (dissatisfaction) that leads to negative reaction toward their job such as low productivity, low quality, employees’ problem, high absenteeism, high turnover, and employees’ grievances that is affecting the performance and reputation of the organization negatively.
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It is worth mentioning that there are differences between the workers in the 1970 and 1980s and today’s workers (Andrew et al. 2002; Jennings, 2000; Karl and Sutton, 1998, cited in Schroder, 2008). Workers in the past had given high value for interesting work, whereas, today’s workers give high value for extrinsic factors such as good pay, job security, and issues related to life style i.e. flexible scheduling, work culture, prestige, and amenities.
Most of the countries are suffering a shortage in health care specialties, especially nursing. Health care institutions in Saudi Arabia are suffering shortages in this important field that delivers health care services to people. Studies conducted in some countries pointed out that job satisfaction for nurses are generally of low or moderate level. However, studies conducted in turkey found that job satisfaction for nurses to be at moderate level (Golbasi et. al. 2008). Thus, enhancing the job satisfaction of the health care specialties is very essential for health care organizations, which will reduce the turnover rate and improve the services quality delivered to patients.