Elka Klein 's book on Jews, Christian Society, and Royal Power in Medieval Barcelona gives context to Jewish/Christian relations in Barcelona, while also defining the Jewish "community" in terms of acculturation.
Barcelona was still a frontier society ruled by the Counts of Barcelona after Louis the Pious captured the city from the Moors in the ninth century, and it became a vital commercial center in the 12-13th centuries under Ramon Berenguer VI. Jews in Barcelona were both connected to Muslim Spain and the North, as they acted as intermediaries. Klein argues that Jews underwent behavioral assimilation, as they were able to keep their group identity. This is in contrast to the idea of Convivencia, as there were still resentment and tension among Christians and Jews to keep a form of separation, and this allowed Jews autonomy in their communities. Legally, Jews had the right to make ordinance that were binding to all members of the community in the synagogue and in the academies. These leaders could exercise power over all members, but they still depended on the community 's acceptance of their power. Although there was no sacramental system to punish transgressors from these laws, the Jewish community had a form of ostracism called herem, which excluded individuals from performing business transactions. Also, while Jews were seen as servi to the Christian kings, in actuality they were neither slaves or serfs, as Jews could marry and they had control over their property and work. There is also little evidence from Latin sources before the 13th century about how much money was collected in taxe...
... middle of paper ...
...ws as money changers, and Jews not being the chosen race, according to the Qur 'an.
Ibn Bassam (d. 1147) was a Muslim individual who praised Samuel, but hated his son Joseph. Ibn Bassam 's first chapter is a prose in honor of Samuel that compares Samuel to the Ka 'ba, and how out of respect of Samuel, Ibn Bassam upholds the Jewish religious tradition. The second chapter, however, discusses the "murder of that Jew," Joseph. Ibn Bassam characterizes Joseph as an esoteric, radical figure who was open about hating Islam.
Abraham ibn Daud (c. 1110- 1181) was a Jewish scholar, who recounted the career of Samuel and Joseph a century later. In comparison to the previous Muslim writers, his writing is less hostile to the Jews. Abraham describes Samuel as a very giving and pious individual, and Joseph as lacking humility, which is why he obtains the jealousy of the Muslims.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- God of Jews, Christians, and Muslims Vs Epictetus’ God: One or Two Different Deities. When looking at Epictetus’ work through the Handbook (The Encheiridon) and The Discourses of Epictetus, we find that there can be many interpretations that can be made on Epictetus’ god. One can interpret through these text above that Epictetus’ god is all-powerful, all-good being, answer the prayers of the pious, and watches over people therefore showing his god as a personal god—God is actively involved among the world and people.... [tags: Religion, Monotheism]
1766 words (5 pages)
- Muslims, Jews, and Christians Must Embrace Each Other From the dawn of creation, God has been and will always be the central foundation of life. God created man to worship Him, but throughout the ages men have gone their separate ways to create different ways to worship God. From this separation many different religions have formed. Each distinct religion has various forms of beliefs. Although Islam, Judaism, and Christianity established their roots in God, each religion differs in living out their faith and in their own way discriminates against people with different beliefs from their own.... [tags: Philosophy Religion]
2094 words (6 pages)
- ... Under the Umayya, Cordoba had always flourished. As a whole, al-Andalus underwent an economic revival as the population increased and failing areas in the countryside were broadened and reformed (Menocal) (27). During the Caliphate of Cordoba, Abd al-Rahman III managed to launch the capital into its finest state of economic prosperity. Moreover, it was reinforced as one of the most prominent cultural bastions of its time. This was largely due to the coexistence of various religions and cultures, a product of the religious tolerance that at least Jews and Christians were supposed to be guaranteed under Islam.... [tags: religious beliefs, political relations]
1971 words (5.6 pages)
- When reading the Siete partidas, the main differences between laws and practices in the treatment of Jews and Muslims that Nirenberg and Barton failed to explain were the conversion laws for these non-Christians. These laws carefully explain the way in which to persuade a non-Christian to convert; “by means of the texts of the Holy Scriptures, and by kind words, for no one can love or appreciate a service which is done him by compulsion” (49). In regards to Jews, if a Jew or Jewess wishes to convert to Christianity, “all persons in our dominions shall honor them”, no one was allowed to insult or harm any convert for formerly being a Jew.... [tags: Judaism, Religion, Persian Jews, Jews]
1064 words (3 pages)
- Part A 1) In several ways, Christians and Muslims in the Middle Ages shared in their approach to dealing with the infidels living in their lands, particularly in their proclamation of legal edicts defining the level of toleration and the protection offered those nonbelievers. Yet, however similar the two society's legislative relations were in managing minority faiths, there still existed minor fundamental differences stemming from disparities in their societal structure. A study of the legal decrees of either society reveals they both desired to maintain hegemony and obtain respect (manifestly and psychologically) for their faith.... [tags: Ottoman Empire, Papal Bull]
1959 words (5.6 pages)
- 1. There are many differences and similarities between Muslim, Jews and Christians. One similarity that all three religions share is the belief in one god, although, Muslims refer to God as Allah. (242). All three religions have places where they go to pray and worship their god along with gathering with others of their faith for various other reasons (247). A Mosque is what the Muslims call their house of worship, a church is where Christians worship and a synagogue is where members of the Jewish community worship (247).... [tags: Islam, Judaism, Allah, Muhammad]
1182 words (3.4 pages)
- The movement and migrations of people groups had a major impact on medieval history. Two major medieval migrations that altered the history of the medieval world were the Muslim migration into the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century and the Mongol migration into Eurasia the 12th century. Arthur Keith, a Scottish anthropologist, once wrote, “Tolerance is held to be a condition of mind which is encouraged by, and is necessary for, civilization. ” In other words, creating a tolerant culture is vital for the survival of society.... [tags: middle east, north africa, history]
1308 words (3.7 pages)
- A major point of debate between historians is over the relationship between the Jews and Muslims during the time of Muhammad in Medina. Some historians such as Fred Donner argues that Jews as well as other Monotheists were part of Muhammad’s early community of faith. Other historians such as Johnathan Berkley disagree with this argument and argues that Muhammad’s early followers and the Jews was two separate entities constantly in confrontation, and questions if one could practice Judaism while being a part of Muhammad’s believers.... [tags: Islam, Muhammad, Judaism, Qur'an]
1446 words (4.1 pages)
- Stereotypes consistently find their place in society. Every single facet of humanity has faced scrutiny for beliefs, practices and ideals. Henrik Ibsen addresses such issues in his play, A Doll’s House, as he discusses the role of women during a villainous time in history. The story’s protagonist, Nora, seeks to break stereotypes about her gender. She defies the majority, stating, “Before all else, I’m a human being, no less that [anyone else].” Over the course of humankind, all groups of people have faced labeling and branding for various reasons.... [tags: stereotypes, religion, Christianity]
858 words (2.5 pages)
- Muslims I first became interested in learning about Muslims when I met a young man in a Speech class of mine. He was dark skinned, dark haired, and extremely handsome, so I decided to get acquainted with him. I asked him his name and he asked me if I wanted his real name or his made up name. I was a little confused and I asked him what he meant by that. He told me he was a Muslim and his "real" Muslim name is Sadat and his made up name is Danny. I was quite intrigued by, but a little confused by all of this, so I thought I would look further into the subject.... [tags: Muslim Islam Religion Essays]
1403 words (4 pages)
- The Revolution During The Military Affair
- The Phenomenology Of Death And Near Death Experiences
- Project Management Planning, Scheduling, And Implementation Of A Project
- A Study On The Change Of Water Deterioration Of The Study Area ( Fig.3 )
- Should Underage Drinking Be A Critical Problem For Texas Teens?
- Analysis Of The Movie ' The Lives Of Others '