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Passover (Pesah), which celebrates the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, begins on the fifteenth of the month of Nisan and continues for seven days, through Nisan 21, though many Diaspora communities celebrate it for eight days (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985). The name Passover is taken from the Exodus story: During the tenth and ultimate plague inflicted on Pharaoh to break his will, God passed over the Israelites and struck down only the Egyptian firstborn. That night Pharaoh finally agreed to let the Israelites go; and ever since then, we gather together on that night to commemorate that time, and to contemplate the meaning of being freed by the "mighty hand and outstretched arm" of the Holy One. (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
The central meaning of Passover is liberation, and hence it is also called "zeman heiruteinu" the season of our liberation. Another name for Passover is "hag ha-aviv" the holiday of spring. The Jewish calendar is set so that certain holidays always occur in a particular season of the year (unlike, for instance, the Moslem calendar) (Drucker, Malka, 1981). Thus, the holiday of liberation is also the holiday of spring, not simply by coincidence but by design. Following the bleakness of winter when everything is covered with the shrouds of snow, spring marks the rebirth of the earth with the bursting forth of green life. Similarly, a people enshackled in oppressive slavery, doomed to a slow process of degradation or even extinction, bursts forth out of Egypt into a new life's journey leading to a land flowing with milk and honey (Bowker, John, 1997).
The watchwords of both spring and Pesah are "rebirth" and "hope." Thus, the spirit of renewed optimism aroused by the sights and smells of spring are reinforced in a Jewish context by Passover with its trumpeting of the possibilities of liberation. Passover reminds us annually that no matter how terrible our situation, we must not lose hope (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
Passover holds out the possibility of renewal, proclaiming that such change is as intrinsic to human nature as are blossoming trees to the natural world (Bowker, John, 1997).
Another name for Pesah is "hag ha-matzot" the holiday of the unleavened bread. The matzah evokes images of that night when the Israelites ate the sacrificial lamb in fearful and eager anticipation of the future. Around them arose the wails of Egyptians mourning the deaths of their firstborn (Drucker, Malka, 1994).
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Matzah as a symbol of liberation is meant to trigger in our minds the whole story, which began in slavery and ended in freedom. It also reminds us of God's role in the Exodus, for it recalls the simple faith of the Israelites, who were willing to leave the home they knew and go off into the desert. Having seen God's redemptive power, they trusted in His promise. As His people, they were willing to follow after Him into "an unsown land" (Jer. 2:2) (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
It is this act of redemption by God that establishes the Covenant between Israel and God. Prior to the Exodus, the covenantal relationship existed only between God and individuals-for example, between God and Abraham. Passover marks the beginning of the relationship between God and the Jews as a people (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
This covenantal relationship lies at the heart of the celebration of Passover. We rejoice for the past liberation from Egypt and for other redemptions by God since then. And because of the fulfillment of past promises, we anticipate at Passover the future final redemption. We create a special role for the prophet Elijah at the seder (see below) as the symbol of our faith in the redemption soon to come (Drucker, Malka, 1994).
God's claim to the Covenant lies in His having fulfilled His promise to bring us out of Egypt. Having redeemed us, God promises: "And I will take you to be My people, and I will be your God. And you shall know that 1, the Lord, am your God who freed you from the burdens of the Egyptians" (Exod. 6:7) (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
Because it is the crucial event that marks the beginning of our sacred history, the Exodus is referred to repeatedly in Jewish liturgy and thought. For example, the shema (the central prayer in Jewish liturgy) concludes "I, the Lord, am your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt to be your God: I the Lord your God" (Num. 15:41) (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
At Passover we are commanded to tell the story of the Exodus. This commandment, unique to this holiday, leads us not simply to remember the Exodus but to expand upon the tale, to explore its complexities and develop its meaning. Thus the Haggadah, the liturgy we use at the seder, states: (Drucker, Malka, 1981).
In every generation, each person should feel as though she or he were redeemed from Egypt, as it is said: "You shall tell your children on that day saying, 'It is because of what the Lord did for me when I went free out of Egypt.' For the Holy One redeemed not only our ancestors; He redeemed us with them" (Drucker, Malka, 1994).
The uniqueness of Passover is encapsulated in the above passage. It teaches us that Jewish history is also a timeless present, that Passover is not simply a commemoration of an important event in our past-analogous to the Fourth of July or Bastille Day-but an event in which we participated and in which we continue to participate. We are meant to reexperience the slavery and the redemption that occurs in each day of our lives (Bowker, John, 1997).
It is our own story, not just some ancient history that we retell at Passover (Drucker, Malka, 1994).
Yom Kippur falls on the tenth of Tishri and brings to a close the ten days of repentance begun with Rosh ha-Shanah. In temple times, Yom Kippur was a day of elaborate cultic rituals to effect the atonement of the people. On this day, God's special name was pronounced by the high priest before the assembled masses in the temple courtyards (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
Yom Kippur has continued to be the day of atonement, though its setting has shifted From the temple from the temple to the synagogue, where we spend almost the whole day in prayer. To aid in focusing our minds on this task of repentance and atonement, we are told to afflict our bodies through fasting and other forms of abstinence. Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement), the holiest and most solemn day in the Jewish calendar, is a 25-hour fast devoted to prayer and penitence (Bowker, John, 1997).
This is in accordance with the tradition that a person's destiny for the coming year is decreed on Rosh ha-Shanah (first and second days of Tishri) and sealed ten days later on Yom Kippur (tenth day of Tishri). Thus, Yom Kippur closes the period of penitence and self-examination known as Aseret Yemei Teshuva (the Ten Days of Repentance). The prayers of the day stress confession of sins and supplications for forgiveness, and are couched in the plural, on behalf of the "entire congregation of Israel (Drucker, Malka, 1981).
"The rabbis teach, however, that the day can only serve to atone for transgressions against God; sins committed against individuals require their forgiveness prior to the day. Yom Kippur, also called the "Sabbath of Sabbaths," is the only fast day that is never postponed, even if it falls on the Sabbath. Five mortifications are prescribed for the day, from sunset to sunset: abstention from food, drink, sexual intercourse, anointing with oil, and wearing leather shoes (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
Despite these rabbinic mortifications, based on the biblical injunction to "afflict yourselves," Yom Kippur is still considered a festival. (Drucker, Malka, 1994).
In the synagogue: The evening prayer services begin with the moving Kol Nidrei prayer. Prayers continue the entire next day until sunset, when the closing Ne'ilah ("locking" in Hebrew) service marks the "closing of the gates of heaven." Yom Kippur concludes with the declaration of God's unity, a single, powerful sounding of the shofar, and the prayer "Next year in Jerusalem" (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985).
The festival prayer book (mahzor) includes all the prayers recited from the morning of the day before Yom Kippur until the last prayer at the close of the holiday. The prayer shawl (tallit) is worn during all five Yom Kippur services (evening, morning, afternoon and evening). It is customary on Yom Kippur to hang a white Torah curtain in the synagogue and to dress the Torah scrolls in white mantles (Bowker, John, 1997).
Many worshippers, too, wear white, the color associated with symbolic purity (and hence forgiveness of sins), integrity and piety. In certain Ashkenazi congregations it is still customary to wear a special white gown called a kittel.
At home: Observance of the Day of Atonement commences with a festive meal (se'udah ha-mafseket), prior to the start of the fast at sunset (Drucker, Malka, 1994).
After the meal, festival candles are lit at sunset; the Shehe'heyanu prayer is then recited, thanking God for the gift of life and for having brought us to this season. It is customary to wear non-leather shoes to the synagogue and to dress in white.
The meal eaten prior to the fasts of Yom Kippur and Tish'ah be-Av (the Ninth of Av) are both called se'udah ha-mafseket (Drucker, Malka, 1981).
The meal eaten before Yom Kippur is a festive meal with abundant food, unlike the meal before Tish'ah be-Av which is traditionally sparse (no meat or wine) as an expression of the mournful nature of the upcoming day (Strassfeld, Michael, 1985). References
Drucker, Malka, (1981), PASSOVER A Season of Freedom, New York: Holiday
Drucker, Malka, (1994), The Family Treasury of Jewish Holidays, New York:
Little, Brown and Company
Bowker, John, (1997), World Religions, New York: DK Publishing, Inc.
Strassfeld, Michael, (1985), The Jewish Holidays, New York: Harper and Row,
Publishers, Inc.; Published simultaneously in Canada, by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, Toronto