A weakness with the domestic level argument could be that the industrialization and building of economic revenue had security driven motives. For example, Japan began in the 19th century as an agricultural state. However, it was Japanese fear of Russia’s industrialization that triggered them to become powerful and guard themselves against European powers (Copeland Lecture: 10.10). Also, Japanese expansion could be explained as a security tactic; during that time, almost all most prominent European countries such as Britain, France, and Germany were imperialistic. Japan followed this move and expanded into its neighboring countries such Korea, Manchuria, and growingly in China and Southeast Asia to protect their own security in the world of anarchy.
In explaining the cause of Cold War, the same idea of individually necessary and jointly sufficient systemic and individual level analyses apply. The most compelling argument for Cold War is the spiraling argument, ...
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...post-decisional rationalization of Hiroshima bombing by saying that it was an act to threaten the Russians and subsequently, to halt communism.
Going back a couple of decades to World War I, the greatest manmade disaster, was again a war driven by the security dilemma and desire to preempt along with poor individual decision making. During this time, Germany became the most powerful state due to massive urbanization and industrialization, and all the other neighboring nations were fearful of this expanding German power. Germany perceived Russia as the biggest threat to its success due to its potentiality in becoming the most powerful state with five times the landmass as Germany and abundance of population and possible resources they had. This fear led to arms racing and lebensraum in mechanism to reduce the security dilemma, but without realizing the actual effects
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