In James Joyce 's "Araby" and Joseph Conrad 's Heart of Darkness, characters have sex and death experiences that catalyze their problem of living in a fallen (postlapsarian) world. From "Araby" readers come across a boy who experiences sex after his sexual awakening in which he falls in love with his friend 's sister. At the same time the boy experiences death as he is living in the home of a deceased priest. These experiences cause the boy to lose his innocence and create his frustration as he cannot buy a gift for Mangan 's sister like he desires. The boy is living in a fallen world and readers discover how he treats this problem when he says: "Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity, and my eyes burned with anguish and anger". The boy treats the problem of living in a postlapsarian world by calling himself a creature...
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... worlds where essences and God are lost and only death exists. In "Araby", Heart of Darkness and Oedipus Rex the characters treat the problem of living in a postlapsarian world in a negative way by becoming beasts, and using violence as punishment. In "Tintern Abbey" and "Dover Beach" however, the speakers treat the problem of living in a postlapsarian world in a more positive way. By accepting that they are in a fallen world, being "true to one another" and opening up to nature. After discussing the works and how they treat the problem of living in a postlapsarian world, the knowledge of being able to decide whether to treat the problem in a negative or positive way emerges. Everyone will eventually lose their innocence and face the problem of living in the fallen world, however readers are now aware that they have a choice to treat the problem however they decide.
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