According to Dolgin (2011), “Biological theorists - primarily biologists and psychologists – believe that adolescents are the way they are because of their genes, hormones, or evolutionary history. These theorists downplay environmental influences and tend to believe that the adolescent experience is similar regardless of where someone is raised” (p. 32). “Development occurs in an almost inevitable, universal pattern, regardless of sociocultural environment” (Dolgin, 2013, p. 32).
Alienation is defined by Dictionary.com (2013) as “the state of being withdrawn or isolated from the objective world, as through indifference or disaffection.”
Thus alienation would be viewed by the biological theorist as having its roots in the evolutionary development of humans and in their genetic background, ensuing physical maturation and development, and hormonal processes of adolescence (Dolgin, 2011). Though some level of alienation could be viewed as normal psychologically for all adolescents, and is likely part of their process of individuation from a biological perspective, significant levels of alienation correspond more closely to unsuccessful individuation (Tieman, 2004). Biologically, one can address abnormal levels of alienation through the use of a variety of modalities designed to bring the adolescent’s levels of hormones and neurochemicals back into normal levels. This can involve exercise or meditation on the one hand, or anti-depressant or anxioloitic medications on the other, depending upon the severity of the feelings of alienation and what is available to the individual adolescent exhibiting higher than normal levels.
Some adolescents can work through their feeli...
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...ected by social media and “media images of excessively slender women encourage adolescent girls to be overly critical of and dissatisfied with their own weight” (Dolgin, 2011, p. 106). Attempts to try to reverse this process by various media have not met with significant success as our society seems to continue to promote unattainable visions of the perfect body through magazines and film. Even photos of supermodels are “air brushed” to make them look even more perfect! We have a long way to go if we ever hope to reverse this trend. Though psychodynamic in her orientation, even Catherine Steiner-Adair (1986) states that eating disorders are significantly more likely when there is “a culture with a mythic image of independence that does not include interdependence” and “unempathic, emotionally distant, and simultaneously enmeshed family relationships” (p. 110).
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