Alienation is defined by Dictionary.com (2013) as “the state of being withdrawn or isolated from the objective world, as through indifference or disaffection.”
Thus alienation would be viewed by the biological theorist as having its roots in the evolutionary development of humans and in their genetic background, ensuing physical maturation and development, and hormonal processes of adolescence (Dolgin, 2011). Though some level of alienation could be viewed as normal psychologically for all adolescents, and is likely part of their process of individuation from a biological perspective, significant levels of alienation correspond more closely to unsuccessful individuation (Tieman, 2004). Biologically, one can address abnormal levels of alienation through the use of a variety of modalities designed to bring the adolescent’s levels of hormones and neurochemicals back into normal levels. This can involve exercise or meditation on the one hand, or anti-depressant or anxioloitic medications on the other, depending upon the severity of the feelings of alienation and what is available to the individual adolescent exhibiting higher than normal levels.
Some adolescents can work through their feelings of alienation through involvement in sports and other act...
... middle of paper ...
Smith, W.P., Compton, W.C., & West, W.B. (1995, March). Meditation as an adjunct to a happiness enhancement program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(2), 269-73. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7797651
Steinberg, L. (2008). A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Dev. Rev., 28, 78–106. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2396566/
Steiner-Adair, C. (1986). The body politic: normal female adolescent development and the development of eating disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 4(1), 95-114.
Tieman, K.L. (2004, January). The relationship between perceived parental attachment, ego development and individuation in a non-clinical adolescent population. ETD Collection for Pace University. Paper AAI3138870. Retrieved from
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